Find out why Mayo Clinic is the right place for your health care. Make an appointment..
Find a directory of doctors and departments at all Mayo Clinic campuses. Visit now..
See how Mayo Clinic research and clinical trials advance the science of medicine and improve patient care. Explore now..
Educators at Mayo Clinic train tomorrow’s leaders to deliver compassionate, high-value, safe patient care. Choose a degree..
Explore Mayo Clinic’s many resources and see jobs available for medical professionals. Get updates..
Your support accelerates powerful innovations in patient care, research and education. Give today..
The small intestine has a ridged lining covered with tiny fingerlike projections called villi.
Whipple disease is a rare bacterial infection that most often affects your joints and digestive system. Whipple disease interferes with normal digestion by impairing the breakdown of foods, such as fats and carbohydrates, and hampering your body’s ability to absorb nutrients.
Whipple disease can also infect other organs, including your brain, heart and eyes.
Without proper treatment, Whipple disease can be serious or fatal. However, a course of antibiotics can treat Whipple disease.
Digestive signs and symptoms are common in Whipple disease and may include:
Other frequent signs and symptoms associated with Whipple disease include:
In some cases, signs and symptoms of Whipple disease may include:
Neurological signs and symptoms may include:
Symptoms tend to develop slowly over many years in most people with this disease. In some cases, symptoms such as joint pain and weight loss develop years before the digestive symptoms that lead to diagnosis.
Whipple disease is potentially life-threatening, yet usually treatable. Contact your doctor if you experience unusual signs or symptoms, such as unexplained weight loss or joint pain. Your doctor can perform tests to determine the cause of your symptoms.
Even after the infection is diagnosed and you’re receiving treatment, let your doctor know if your symptoms don’t improve. Sometimes antibiotic therapy isn’t effective because the bacteria are resistant to the particular drug you’re taking. The disease can recur, so it’s important to watch for the re-emergence of symptoms.
Whipple disease is caused by a type of bacterium called Tropheryma whipplei. The bacteria affect the mucosal lining of your small intestine first, forming small lesions within the intestinal wall. The bacteria also damage the fine, hairlike projections (villi) that line the small intestine.
Not much is known about the bacteria. Although they seem readily present in the environment, scientists don’t know where they come from or how they’re spread to humans. Not everyone who carries the bacteria develops the disease. Some researchers believe that people with the disease may have a genetic defect in their immune system response that makes them more likely to become sick when exposed to the bacteria.
Whipple disease is extremely uncommon, affecting fewer than 1 in 1 million people.
Because so little is known about the bacteria that cause Whipple disease, risk factors for the disease haven’t been clearly identified. Based on available reports, it appears more likely to affect:
The lining of your small intestine has fine, hairlike projections (villi) that help your body absorb nutrients. Whipple disease damages the villi, impairing nutrient absorption. Nutritional deficiencies are common in people with Whipple disease and can lead to fatigue, weakness, weight loss and joint pain.
Whipple disease is a progressive and potentially fatal disease. Although the infection is rare, associated deaths continue to be reported, due in large part to late diagnoses and delayed treatment. Death often is caused by the spread of the infection to the central nervous system, which can cause irreversible damage.
Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission.
Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic.
A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. “Mayo,” “Mayo Clinic,” “MayoClinic.org,” “Mayo Clinic Healthy Living,” and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.
Research & References of Whipple’s disease|A&C Accounting And Tax Services