Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumors Overview of TURBT
Endoscopic treatment with transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) is the first-line treatment to diagnose, stage, and treat visible tumors. In select patients, office-based fulguration of small tumors allows control of low-risk lesions without incurring the cost and inefficiencies of the operating room. 
TURBT is not effective for carcinoma in situ (CIS) because the disease is often so diffuse and difficult to visualize that surgical removal is not feasible. Therefore, the role of cystoscopy is to establish the diagnosis so that therapy can be instituted. Obvious areas of CIS may also be fulgurated, but the benefits of this have not been proven. When a combination of papillary tumor and CIS is present, the papillary tumor is removed before treatment of the CIS is initiated.
For more information, see Bladder Cancer.
Patients scheduled for cystoscopy or anesthetic cystoscopy with transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) must have sterile urine documented prior to instrumentation. Sterility is usually presumed on the basis of a microscopic urinalysis showing no bacteria or white blood cells (WBCs). A urine culture is ideal but not always feasible for surveillance cystoscopy.
The risk of urinary tract infection with instrumentation is approximately 1%. Therefore, the author recommends a single dose of fluoroquinolone for patients undergoing cystoscopy and a dose of intravenous antibiotics (ie, cefazolin, gentamicin) for patients in the operating room. Allergies may prompt the use of alternative antibiotic regimens.
Some patients need additional antibiotics based on a history of valvular heart disease. The American Heart Association guidelines recommend prophylaxis in these patients to prevent endocarditis.
Administer 2 g of ampicillin intravenously or intramuscularly at least 30 minutes before the procedure (or 2 g of amoxicillin orally at least 1 h before the procedure) in moderate-risk patients. In patients allergic to penicillin, vancomycin at a dosage of 1 g intravenously over 1-2 hours, completed at least 30 minutes before the procedure, may be substituted. High-risk patients also receive 120 mg of gentamicin parenterally 30 minutes before the procedure, and they receive a second dose of ampicillin or amoxicillin 6 hours later.
Patients with prosthetics may merit additional antibiotics based on the clinical scenario.
General or regional anesthesia can be used.
Complete eradication of tumor is the first step of transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). Most tumors are papillary and are easily removed by endoscopically transecting their narrow stalk or base. Following this, biopsy of the base is performed to ensure complete removal and the absence of invasion. Muscle tissue (or fat) must be present in the base biopsy specimen to ensure accurate staging.
Medium and large tumors are resected piecemeal prior to transection of the stalk. This ensures that large segments do not remain that might be too large to evacuate through the resectoscope.
Smaller and more friable tumors may be removed at least partially by knocking off fragments with the cutting loop of the resectoscope without the electricity turned on. This sometimes allows partial removal with less risk of bladder perforation.
Pulling the cutting loop away from the tumor is generally much safer than pushing it toward the tumor. Lifting the tumor away from the surrounding normal bladder tissue using the cutting loop is also advisable.
Continuous-irrigation resectoscopes concern some surgeons regarding fluid absorption. However, continuous infusion lessens the bladder wall movement that occurs during filling and emptying and thereby may decrease the risk of bladder perforation. Overfilling also stretches and thins the detrusor, which is another risk factor.
Transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome due to fluid absorption is uncommon unless the tumor being resected is particularly large. If this is a concern, glycine prevents hemolysis, but not hyponatremia.
Overuse of cautery at the base of the tumor increases cautery artifact, which can complicate pathological determination of muscle invasion status.
Occasionally, a catheter may need to be left in place for 1-3 days after bladder biopsies. It is usually removed in the urology office.
Within the first 24 hours, a single intravesical instillation of mitomycin-C (40 mg in 20 mL of saline) has been shown to reduce the frequency of tumor recurrence and should be considered the standard of care after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) or positive bladder biopsy findings. 
A second TURBT should be performed 2-6 weeks after initial TURBT for several patient populations, including after incomplete initial resection, if there is no muscularis propria in the specimen, all T1 tumors, and all high-grade tumors. A second TURBT can be omitted for patients with primary CIS or for solitary low-grade Ta tumors. The rationale for second TURBT is the risk of understaging, as well as the significant risk of residual tumor after initial TURBT.
Traditionally, TURBT was performed using monopolar electrocautery to provide the necessary energy for resecting the tumor and cauterizing blood vessels. More recently, as bipolar technology has emerged and improved, its application has extended to TURBT, with a potential benefit of decreased risk of bladder perforation from obturator reflex and decreased risk of TUR syndrome. With bipolar technology, the active and return electrodes are very close together on the loop so that the current does not travel through the patient’s body to an external pad, as is the case with monopolar cautery. This also allows for the use of nonconductive isotonic irrigation fluid, mitigating the aforementioned risks of TUR syndrome. 
Wang and colleagues were the first to report on bipolar TURBT and compared the pathologic specimens from 11 patients who underwent bipolar TURBT with a matched historic cohort of 11 patients who underwent standard monopolar TURBT.  No differences in the degree of cautery artifact were noted between the 2 groups, and a full and proper diagnosis was achieved in all cases when assessed by a single pathologist who was blinded to the form of electrocautery used.
Yang and associates retrospectively compared clinical and pathologic results in 115 patients who underwent bipolar (n=64) versus monopolar (n=51) TURBT.  Postoperative change in hemoglobin (-0.58±0.91 g/dL vs -0.95±1.28 g/dL, P =.038) and mean duration of catheterization (2.20±0.96 d vs 2.65±1.45 d, P =.026) favored the bipolar TURBT group. No difference in the grade of thermal damage was noted between the 2 groups as well. Furthermore, reducing the power settings to 50-W cutting and 40-W coagulation may reduce the incidence of obturator nerve reflex and bladder perforation to close to zero while still maintaining diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy. 
Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) has emerged as a viable adjunct to white-light (WL) cystoscopy to assist in the performance of a complete TURBT.  Lesions can be missed using WL cystoscopy, and PDD has been developed to assist in the detection of these lesions, reduce the rate of recurrence, and improve the completeness of resection. PDD exploits the photodynamic properties of several compounds, including hexaminolevulinate (HAL) (Hexvix, Cysview, Photocure; Oslo, Norway) and 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA).
Approximately 1 hour prior to planned TURBT, 50 mL of reconstituted solution of HAL is instilled into the emptied bladder via an intravesical catheter. Following instillation, protoporphyrin IX accumulates preferentially in neoplastic tissue, producing a clearly demarcated red fluorescence with illumination with blue-violet light (380-440 nm). Cysview (HAL hydrochloride) was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2010 for use with the Karl Storz D-Light C PDD system with the blue-light (BL) setting as an adjunct to the WL setting in the detection of nonmuscle invasive papillary cancer of the bladder in patients suspected or known to have lesions on the basis of a prior cystoscopy.
A recent meta-analysis reviewed the raw data from prospective studies on 1,345 patients with known or suspected nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer on whom HAL and BL as an adjunct to WL cystoscopy.  HAL BL cystoscopy detected significantly more Ta tumors (14.7%; P< .001) and CIS lesions (40.8%; P< .001) than WL cystoscopy. Furthermore, recurrence rates up to 12 months were significantly lower overall with BL HAL versus WL cystoscopy (34.5% vs 45.4%; P =.006).
The European Association of Urology 2013 guidelines on nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer recommend PDD in patients who are suspected of harboring a high-grade tumor for guidance of TURBT. It is possible that BL HAL–assisted TURBT improves completeness and quality of resection and might obviate the need for perioperative intravesical instillation of chemotherapy or a second TURBT, but further study is needed in this area to test this hypothesis.
While 5-ALA is not currently approved for routine clinical use for the detection of bladder cancer in Europe or the United States, it has been extensively studied in numerous clinical trials. Furthermore, orally applied 5-ALA has been approved in Europe to enhance intraoperative detection of malignant glioma. Inoue et al evaluated the clinical value of PDD with intravesical (n=75) and oral (n=135) instillation of 5-ALA and PDD-guided TURBT for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer in a multi-institutional retrospective study in 210 patients.  Rates of recurrence were compared with historical controls subjects who underwent TURBT with WL cystoscopy. 5-ALA–guided TURBT improved detection of CIS, as 72.1% of flat lesions (including dysplasia and CIS) could only be detected with BL 5-ALA–assisted TURBT. The route of administration of 5-ALA (oral vs intravesical) did not affect diagnostic accuracy or recurrence-free survival.
The management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer is expensive, stemming from high recurrence rates necessitating repeat TURBT and frequent surveillance cystoscopies. As HAL and 5-ALA have been shown to help increase the detection and reduce the recurrence of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, this technology may reduce the cost of bladder cancer management. Garfield et al assessed the cost effectiveness of BL HAL–assisted cystoscopy as an adjunct to WL cystoscopy versus WL cystoscopy alone at the time of initial TURBT and noted a cost savings of nearly $5,000 in the PDD group in their model over a 5-year projected period. [10, 11]
Narrowband imaging (NBI) technology takes advantage of the hypervascular nature of bladder cancer to aid in differentiation of normal urothelium. WL is filtered into 2 bandwidths of 415 and 540 nm, which is preferentially absorbed by hemoglobin in hypervascular neoplastic tissues. A recent meta-analysis evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of NBI-assisted cystoscopy compared with WL cystoscopy for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.  NBI detected tumors in an additional 17% of patients and found an additional 24% of tumors compared with WL cystoscopy. No difference in the rate of false-positive tumor detection was noted between NBI and WL cystoscopy. NBI may be a useful adjunct for the detection and management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.
Donat SM, North A, Dalbagni G, Herr HW. Efficacy of office fulguration for recurrent low grade papillary bladder tumors less than 0.5 cm. J Urol. 2004 Feb. 171(2 Pt 1):636-9. [Medline].
Barghi MR, Rahmani MR, Hosseini Moghaddam SM, Jahanbin M. Immediate intravesical instillation of mitomycin C after transurethral resection of bladder tumor in patients with low-risk superficial transitional cell carcinoma of bladder. Urol J. 2006 Fall. 3(4):220-4. [Medline].
Venkatramani V, Panda A, Manojkumar R, Kekre NS. Monopolar versus bipolar transurethral resection of bladder tumors: a single center, parallel arm, randomized, controlled trial. J Urol. 2014 Jun. 191 (6):1703-7. [Medline].
Wang DS, Bird VG, Leonard VY, et al. Use of bipolar energy for transurethral resection of bladder tumors: pathologic considerations. J Endourol. 2004 Aug. 18(6):578-82. [Medline].
Yang SJ, Song PH, Kim HT. Comparison of deep biopsy tissue damage from transurethral resection of bladder tumors between bipolar and monopolar devices. Korean J Urol. 2011 Jun. 52(6):379-83. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Gupta NP, Saini AK, Dogra PN, Seth A, Kumar R. Bipolar energy for transurethral resection of bladder tumours at low-power settings: initial experience. BJU Int. 2011 Aug. 108(4):553-6. [Medline].
Herr HW. Randomized trial of narrow-band versus white-light cystoscopy for restaging (second-look) transurethral resection of bladder tumors. Eur Urol. 2015 Apr. 67 (4):605-8. [Medline].
Burger M, Grossman HB, Droller M, et al. Photodynamic Diagnosis of Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer with Hexaminolevulinate Cystoscopy: A Meta-analysis of Detection and Recurrence Based on Raw Data. Eur Urol. 2013 Apr 8. [Medline].
Inoue K, Fukuhara H, Shimamoto T, et al. Comparison between intravesical and oral administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid in the clinical benefit of photodynamic diagnosis for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Cancer. 2012 Feb 15. 118(4):1062-74. [Medline].
Garfield SS, Gavaghan MB, Armstrong SO, Jones JS. The cost-effectiveness of blue light cystoscopy in bladder cancer detection: United States projections based on clinical data showing 4.5 years of follow up after a single hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride instillation. Can J Urol. 2013 Apr. 20(2):6682-9. [Medline].
Gendy R, Delprado W, Brenner P, Brooks A, Coombes G, Cozzi P, et al. Repeat transurethral resection for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a contemporary series. BJU Int. 2015 Oct 21. [Medline].
Li K, Lin T, Fan X, Duan Y, Huang J. Diagnosis of narrow-band imaging in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Urol. 2013 Jun. 20(6):602-9. [Medline].
Gary David Steinberg, MD, FACS The Bruce and Beth White Family Professor and Vice Chairman of Urology, Director of Urologic Oncology, Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago Medical Center and Cancer Center
Gary David Steinberg, MD, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for Cancer Research, Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons, American Society of Clinical Oncology, International Society of Urology, American College of Surgeons, American Urological Association, Society of Urologic Oncology
Disclosure: Received consulting fee from Abbott Molecular for consulting; Received consulting fee from Endo Pharmaceuticals for consulting; Received consulting fee from Bioniche for consulting; Received consulting fee from Tengion for consulting; Received consulting fee from Archimedes for review panel membership; Received consulting fee from PhotoCure for review panel membership; Received consulting fee from Taris Biomedical for review panel membership; Received none from Cold Genesys for other; Received h for: Photocure; Taris Biomedical; Heat Biologics: Cold Genesys; Merck; Roche/Genentech; Karl Storz; Mdx Health, Telesta.
Kyle A Richards, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health; Chief of Urology, Division of Urology, William S Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference
Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.
Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS Professor of Urology, Director, Center for Laparoscopy and Endourology, Department of Surgery, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine
Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Surgeons, American Urological Association, Association of Military Osteopathic Physicians and Surgeons, Endourological Society, Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons, Society of University Urologists
Disclosure: Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Cook Medical; Olympus.
Dan Theodorescu, MD, PhD Paul A Bunn Professor of Cancer Research, Professor of Surgery and Pharmacology, Director, University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center
Dan Theodorescu, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Cancer Society, American College of Surgeons, American Urological Association, Medical Society of Virginia, Society for Basic Urologic Research, and Society of Urologic Oncology
Disclosure: Key Genomics Ownership interest Co-Founder-50% Stock Ownership; KromaTiD, Inc Stock Options Board membership
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