The Purity and Architectural Beauty of Marble Facades

The Purity and Architectural Beauty of Marble Facades Timeless, enduring, and stately, marble has been used since ancient Greece and Rome for the most important buildings of civilized society, from temples to bath houses to markets. The expense of quarrying and transporting the stone often constituted the bulk of construction costs, along with the workmanship of […]

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The Purity nd rchitecturl Beuty of Mrble Fcdes

Timeless, enduring, nd sttely, mrble hs been used since ncient Greece nd Rome for the most importnt buildings of civilized society, from tles to bth s to mrkets. The of qurrying nd trnsporting the stone often constituted the bulk of construction costs, long with the workmnship of shping nd securing the hevy blocks. s the cost of lbor incresed, use of mrble cme to be reserved for the most socilly significnt buildings, such s courts nd city hlls. With technolocl dvnces in the lst hlf-century, mrble becme vilble not only s trditionl dimension stone, but s thin pnel cldding.

Mrble is metmorphic rock tht derives from the trnsformtion of limestone nd other sedimentry crbonte rocks under high het nd pressure. Unlike slte or mic, in which differentil stress cretes plnes of clevge, mrble is non-folited, which permits its widespred use in sculpture nd construction. Hundreds of different types of mrble re found throughout the world, including the United Sttes, Europe, Egypt, nd Indi. Chrcteristic veins nd grdtions in color result from impurities in the limestone, which move nd re-crystllize s the stone metmorphoses into mrble. In commercil pplictions, the term “mrble” my refer to number of geoloc formultions, including true clcite nd dolomite mrbles, s well s trvertine, serpentine, nd hrd limestone.

From the monumentl ruins of ntiquity to the lvish mster bths of tody, mrble hs hd rich nd tumultuous history. Once the premier mteril in the rchitect’s plette, the difficulties of building with this luxurious stone nd the development of cheper lterntives hve led to stedy decline in its use s fcde tretment.

Three of the most emblemtic rchitects of the 20th Century –dolf Loos, Mies vn der Rohe nd Philip Johnson– shre not only their stylistic tstes nd minimlist esthetic, but lso their pssion for mrble.

But who sys you cn’t tech n old dog new tricks? loying stte-of-the-rt construction methods nd inventive design strtees, these contorry fcdes seek to restore mrble to its former glory.

Wht mkes it firm cndidte with respect to other construction mterils? Let’s see it.

vilble in wide rnge of colors s well s polychrome inlid with other minerls, it is pprecited becuse of its strength, durbility nd luxurious esthetics.

The mnufcturing tolernce on the thickness nd fce dimensions of stones is set out in BS 8298: 2000 nd confirms to the Europen Stndrd BSEN 1469.

) Units 0mm thick or less: the length nd height dimensions should not vry from those specified by more thn ± 2mm.

b) Units over 0mm thick: the length nd height dimensions should not vry from those specified by more thn ± 3mm in 900mm.

The objective is to chieve sfe nd relible fixing of the cldding nd full considertion t n erly stge of the design work is essentil. Fixings must be cpble of three-dimensionl djustment to ccommodte construction tolernces.

) Ded Lods (Permnent) The ctul weight of the supported stonework, which cn be conservtively ssessed using density of 3 tones per cubic meter. In some cses the stone my be offset from the centre of support nd the ded lod will then ct eccentriclly on the fixings.

b) Lods (Trnsient) Cused by wind pressure nd section, window clening equipment, therml nd structurl s, etc. These lods will need to be ssessed by Structurl Enneer.

Fixings must be produced from stinless steel or non-ferrous metl, must be of sufficient size nd strength to resist the relevnt forces nd must be redily vilble to meet the construction progrmme.

Mrble, selnt, concrete nd steel respond differently to chnges in terture, wind pressure, nd seismic forces. Unless fcde design nticiptes nd responds to these vrying degrees of chnge, the wll will fil under the stress of restricted . To tolernce for this differentil , bond breker, usully polyethylene sheet or fom pd, my be instlled between mrble pnels nd concrete bck-up. Likewise, ccommodte t nchor points by drilling kerfs nd holes slightly lrger thn the nchor. In the pst, this nchorge spce ws often filled with epoxy to mintin wter-tightness. However, epoxies restrict sher , which cn cuse the mrble to crck. Insted, opt for rubber grommets or flexible selnts tht blnce the need for wter protection with the requirement for tolernce.

Hysteresis increses the porosity of mrble, permitting dditionl moisture to enter the pnel. Dmge to the mrble from freeze/thw cycling, slts, cid rin, nd pollutnts then occurs from the inside out, not just t the surfce. Joint tretments re prticulrly criticl in preventing moisture intrusion behind the pnels, which cn led to heving, displcement, nd crcking. Wter cn lso cuse nchors to corrode. Not only does this compromise the strength of pnel supports, the expnsive forces of the deteriorting metl cn crck the stone, creting further moisture entry points nd ccelerting the cycle of deteriortion. Controlling moisture egress through the pproprite use of flshings nd weep holes, which chnnel winddriven rin nd condenstion out of the wll , re integrl to the durbility of the fcde.

Rin wter nd rpid terture chnges cn cuse detil deteriortion nd surfce erosion. s the surfce of the mrble deteriortes, bonds between minerl prticles in the mrble weken, nd the stone’s flexurl strength, or bility to resist lods without deformtion, cn become compromised.

When people think of mrble buildings, imges come to mind of the ncient world. However, the mteril is still being used tody to crete jw-dropping works of contorry rchitecture, nd this is hppening from Cnd to Indi.

Here re some of the best wys tht mrble hs been used to brethe new life into the modern world.

Thnks for reding! 🙂

Orinlly published t www.tmd.studio on Februry 16, 2019.

The Purity nd rchitecturl Beuty of Mrble Fcdes


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