Postpartum Infections

Postpartum Infections

No Results

No Results

processing….

Postpartum infections comprise a wide range of entities that can occur after vaginal and cesarean delivery or during breastfeeding. In addition to trauma sustained during the birth process or cesarean procedure, physiologic changes during pregnancy contribute to the development of postpartum infections. [1] The typical pain that many women feel in the immediate postpartum period also makes it difficult to discern postpartum infection from postpartum pain.

Postpartum patients are frequently discharged within a couple days following delivery. The short period of observation may not afford enough time to exclude evidence of infection prior to discharge from the hospital. In one study, 94% of postpartum infection cases were diagnosed after discharge from the hospital. [2] Postpartum fever is defined as a temperature greater than 38.0°C on any 2 of the first 10 days following delivery exclusive of the first 24 hours. [3] The presence of postpartum fever is generally accepted among clinicians as a sign of infection that must be determined and managed.

Local spread of colonized bacteria is the most common etiology for postpartum infection following vaginal delivery. Endometritis is the most common infection in the postpartum period. Other postpartum infections include (1) postsurgical wound infections, (2) perineal cellulitis, (3) mastitis, (4) respiratory complications from anesthesia, (5) retained products of conception, (6) urinary tract infections (UTIs), and (7) septic pelvic phlebitis. Wound infection is more common with cesarean delivery. (A review study by Haas et al indicated that cleansing the vagina with a povidone-iodine or chlorhexidine solution immediately prior to cesarean delivery decreases the risk for postoperative endometritis. [4] )

The Route of delivery is the single most important factor in the development of endometritis. [5]  The risk of endometritis increases dramatically after cesarean delivery. [5, 6]  However, there is some evidence that hospital readmission for management of postpartum endometritis occurs more often in those who delivered vaginally. [6]

Other risk factors include prolonged rupture of membranes, prolonged use of internal fetal monitoring, anemia, and lower socioeconomic status. [5]

Perioperative antibiotics have greatly decreased the incidence of endometritis. [5]

In most cases of endometritis, the bacteria responsible are those that normally reside in the bowel, vagina, perineum, and cervix.

The uterine cavity is usually sterile until the rupture of the amniotic sac. As a consequence of labor, delivery, and associated manipulations, anaerobic and aerobic bacteria can contaminate the uterus.

Most often, the etiologic organisms associated with perineal cellulitis and episiotomy site infections are Staphylococcus or Streptococcus species and gram-negative organisms, as in endometritis.

Vaginal secretions contain as many as 10 billion organisms per gram of fluid. Yet, infections develop in only 1% of patients who had vaginal tears or who underwent episiotomies.

Those who underwent cesarean delivery have a higher readmission rate for wound infection and complications than those who delivered vaginally. [7]

Increased risk of genital tract infections is related to the duration of labor (ie prolonged labor increases risk of infection), use of internal monitoring devices, and number of vaginal examinations. [8]

Genital tract infections are generally polymicrobial. Gram-positive cocci and Bacteroides and Clostridium species are the predominant anaerobic organisms involved. Escherichia coli and gram-positive cocci are commonly involved aerobes.

The most common organism reported in mastitis is Staphylococcus aureus. The organism usually comes from the breastfeeding infant’s mouth or throat.

Thrombosis may occur. Numerous factors cause pregnant and postpartum women to be more susceptible to thrombosis. Pregnancy is known to induce a hypercoagulable state secondary to increased levels of clotting factors. Also, venous stasis occurs in the pelvic veins during pregnancy.

Although relatively rare, septic pelvic thrombosis is occasionally observed in the postpartum patient, who might have fever.

Bacteria most frequently found in UTIs are normal bowel flora, including E coli and Klebsiella, Proteus, and Enterobacter species.

Any form of invasive manipulation of the urethra (eg, Foley catheterization) increases the likelihood of a UTI.

The following increase the risk for postpartum infections:

History of cesarean delivery

Premature rupture of membranes

Frequent cervical examination (Sterile gloves should be used in examinations. Other than a history of cesarean delivery, this risk factor is most important in postpartum infection.)

Internal fetal monitoring

Preexisting pelvic infection including bacterial vaginosis

Diabetes

Nutritional status

Obesity

In the aforementioned study by Bauer et al, of approximately 45 million hospitalizations for delivery between 1998 and 2008, medical conditions that were found to be independently associated with severe sepsis included congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus. An association with rescue cerclage was also found. [9]

In a study by Yokoe et al in 2001, 5.5% of vaginal deliveries and 7.4% of cesarean deliveries resulted in a postpartum infection. [2] The overall postpartum infection rate was 6.0%. Endometritis accounted for nearly half of the infections in patients following cesarean delivery (3.4% of cesarean deliveries). Mastitis and urinary tract infections together accounted for 5% of vaginal deliveries. [2]

A study by Bauer et al indicated that in the United States from 1998 to 2008, of approximately 45 million hospitalizations for delivery, sepsis was a complication in 1 out of every 3333 deliveries. The investigators also found that during the study period, the risk for severe sepsis (1:10,823 deliveries) and sepsis-related death (1:105,263 deliveries) increased. [9]

The risk of postpartum urinary tract infection is increased in the African American, Native American, and Hispanic populations. [10]

The prognosis for postpartum infections is good with prompt and appropriate therapy.

In most reviews, maternal death rates associated with infection range from 4-8%, or approximately 0.6 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births.

A pregnancy-related mortality surveillance by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicated infection accounted for about 11.6% of all deaths following pregnancy that resulted in a live birth, stillbirth, or ectopic. [11]

Complications include the following:

Scarring

Infertility

Sepsis

Septic shock

Death

Cunningham GF, Levano KJ, Gilstrap LC, et al. Puerperal Infection. Cunningham GF, Levano KJ, Bloom SL, et al, eds. Williams Obstetrics. 22nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005. 711-24.

Yokoe DS, Christiansen CL, Johnson R, Sandu KE, et al. Epidemiology of and Surveillance for Postpartum Infectious. Emerg Infect Dis. Sep-Oct 2001. 7(5):837-41. [Medline]. [Full Text].

Adair FL. The American Committee of Maternal Welfare, Inc: The Chairman’s Address. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1935. 30:868.

Haas DM, Morgan S, Contreras K, Enders S. Vaginal preparation with antiseptic solution before cesarean section for preventing postoperative infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jul 17. 7:CD007892. [Medline].

Monif GR, Baker DA. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 6th ed. Informa HealthCare; 2008.

Atterbury JL, Groome LJ, Baker SL, Ross EL, Hoff C. Hospital readmission for postpartum endometritis. J Matern Fetal Med. 1998 Sep-Oct. 7(5):250-4. [Medline].

Newton ER, Prihoda TJ, Gibbs RS. A clinical and microbiologic analysis of risk factors for puerperal endometritis. Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Mar. 75(3 Pt 1):402-6. [Medline].

Maharaj D. Puerperal Pyrexia: a review. Part II. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2007 Jun. 62(6):400-6. [Medline].

Bauer ME, Bateman BT, Bauer ST, et al. Maternal sepsis mortality and morbidity during hospitalization for delivery: temporal trends and independent associations for severe sepsis. Anesth Analg. 2013 Oct. 117(4):944-50. [Medline].

Schwartz MA, Wang CC, Eckert LO, Critchlow CW. Risk factors for urinary tract infection in the postpartum period. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Sep. 181(3):547-53. [Medline].

Chang J, Elam-Evans LD, Berg CJ, Herndon J, Flowers L, Seed KA, et al. Pregnancy-related mortality surveillance–United States, 1991–1999. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2003 Feb 21. 52(2):1-8. [Medline].

Garcia J, Aboujaoude R, Apuzzio J, Alvarez JR. Septic pelvic thrombophlebitis: diagnosis and management. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2006. 2006:15614. [Medline].

Chaim W, Burstein E. Postpartum infection treatments: a review. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2003 Aug. 4(8):1297-313. [Medline].

French LM, Smaill FM. Antibiotic regimens for endometritis after delivery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Oct 2004. 18(4):CD001067. [Medline].

Mackeen AD, Packard RE, Ota E, Speer L. Antibiotic regimens for postpartum endometritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Feb 2. 2:CD001067. [Medline].

Amir LH, Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee. ABM clinical protocol #4: Mastitis, revised March 2014. Breastfeed Med. 2014 Jun. 9 (5):239-43. [Medline].

[Guideline] American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs. Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics. 2001 Sep. 108(3):776-89. [Medline].

Kaiser J, McPherson V, Kaufman L, Huber T. Clinical inquiries. Which UTI therapies are safe and effective during breastfeeding?. J Fam Pract. 2007 Mar. 56(3):225-8. [Medline].

Wagenlehner FM, Weidner W, Naber KG. An update on uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women. Curr Opin Urol. 2009 Jul. 19(4):368-74. [Medline].

Cipro package insert. West Have, Conn. Bayer Pharmaceuticals Corporation. April 2009.

Grady R. Safety profile of quinolone antibiotics in the pediatric population. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Dec. 22(12):1128-32. [Medline].

Bar-Oz B, Bulkowstein M, Benyamini L, Greenberg R, Soriano I, Zimmerman D. Use of antibiotic and analgesic drugs during lactation. Drug Saf. 2003. 26(13):925-35. [Medline].

Nabhan AF, Allam NE, Hamed Abdel-Aziz Salama M. Routes of administration of antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing infection after caesarean section. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jun 17. CD011876. [Medline].

Bonet M, Ota E, Chibueze CE, Oladapo OT. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis after normal vaginal birth for reducing maternal infectious morbidity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Nov 13. 11:CD012137. [Medline].

Chebbo A, Tan S, Kassis C, Tamura L, Carlson RW. Maternal sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Clin. 2016 Jan. 32 (1):119-35. [Medline].

Andy W Wong, MD Resident Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit Receiving Hospital

Andy W Wong, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, Emergency Medicine Residents’ Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Adam J Rosh, MD Assistant Professor, Program Director, Emergency Medicine Residency, Department of Emergency Medicine, Detroit Receiving Hospital, Wayne State University School of Medicine

Adam J Rosh, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Mark Zwanger, MD, MBA 

Mark Zwanger, MD, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Bruce M Lo, MD, MBA, CPE, RDMS, FACEP, FAAEM, FACHE Medical Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, Sentara Norfolk General Hospital; Professor and Assistant Program Director, Core Academic Faculty, Department of Emergency Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School

Bruce M Lo, MD, MBA, CPE, RDMS, FACEP, FAAEM, FACHE is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American Association for Physician Leadership, American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Healthcare Executives, American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, Emergency Nurses Association, Medical Society of Virginia, Norfolk Academy of Medicine, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Assaad J Sayah, MD, FACEP Senior Vice President and Chief Medical Officer, Cambridge Health Alliance

Assaad J Sayah, MD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, Massachusetts Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Elicia Kennedy, MD Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.

Elicia Kennedy is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Andy W Wong, MD Resident Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit Receiving Hospital

Andy W Wong, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians and Emergency Medicine Residents Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Postpartum Infections

Research & References of Postpartum Infections|A&C Accounting And Tax Services
Source