Hand injuries are very common in all sports, especially in ball-playing athletes. Most athletic hand injuries are closed hand injuries and include ligamentous injuries, fractures and fracture-dislocations, tendon injuries, and neurovascular problems. There is increasing recognition that fractures and dislocations of the hand can result in long-term pain and disability if they are not recognized and treated early. [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
Extra-articular fractures of the distal phalanx are common and are associated with significant soft-tissue injury. Most distal phalangeal fractures are crush injuries from a perpendicular force. They can be associated with significant debility, usually in the form of soft-tissue loss, nail bed injury, or posttraumatic neuromas. Intra-articular fractures of the distal phalanx can result from avulsion of either the extensor tendon, also known as mallet fractures, or of the flexor digitorum profundus, also known as jersey fractures. These can be associated with either small dorsal fragments or larger articular fragments with volar subluxation of the volar fragment. Conservative management is usually the standard of treatment.
Fractures of the proximal phalanx are more common than fractures of the middle phalanges. Dorsal or palmar angulation may occur with these fractures, depending on their location. Nondisplaced fractures are usually stable and are treated with closed reduction and fixation. [2, 6] If significant comminution or segmental bone loss is present, these unstable fractures may require either internal or external fixation.
The proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is particularly vulnerable to injury as either an ligamentous or intra-articular fracture, with or without subluxation or dislocation. Middle phalangeal articular fractures at the PIP joint include dorsal lip fractures, palmar lip fractures, and central articular disruptions or pilon fractures. Avulsion and impaction sheer are 2 fracture mechanisms.
Middle phalanx palmar lip fractures are the most common form of osseous injury associated with PIP joint fracture-dislocations. Dorsal fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint is reported to occur in 9 of every 100,000 people each year. Many of these injuries are frequently ignored or treated inappropriately. As a result, there can be permanent swelling, pain, and variable degrees of stiffness, angulation, and degenerative changes.
If a serious phalangeal injury is suspected, radiographs should be performed before more forceful testing. Hand fractures in the athlete are treated with adequate alignment, immobilization, and then motion. In general, intra-articular fractures must be reduced anatomically. Reduction requires early recognition of the exact location of the fracture and having a complete understanding of the muscle pull on the fragments, then minimizing the deforming force.
See the image below.
The phalanges do not contain muscle bellies, and motor function is accomplished only by the flexor and extensor tendons. An overview of the muscles and tendons of the hand is necessary. The thenar muscles consist of 3 intrinsic muscles including the abductor pollicis brevis (which abducts the thumb), the flexor pollicis brevis (which flexes the proximal phalanx of the thumb), and the opponens pollicis (which produces opposition of the thumb).
All 3 intrinsic thenar muscles are supplied by the recurrent branch of the median nerve. The adductor pollicis adducts the thumb and is supplied by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. The hypothenar muscles are also supplied by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve.
The abductor digiti minimi abducts the fifth digit and flexes its proximal phalanx. The flexor digiti minimi is deeper and also flexes the proximal phalanx of the fifth digit. The opponens digiti minimi, as its name implies, opposes the fifth digit.
The lumbricals are 4 muscles that arise from the tendons of flexor digitorum profundus. Their tendons insert into the radial side of each of the proximal phalanges of the fingers and into the dorsal hood. They flex the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend the interphalangeal joints. The first and second lumbricals are supplied by the median nerve, and the third and fourth lumbricals are supplied by the ulnar nerve.
The palmar and dorsal interossei arise from the metacarpals. The palmar interossei insert into the proximal phalanx and the expansion of the extensor digitorum communis. The palmar interossei are adductor muscles. Dorsal interossei are abductors and insert into the proximal phalanges and the dorsal digital hood. The interosseous muscles are all supplied by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve.
As the tendons of the long flexor and extensor muscles reach the hand, the flexor tendons must first pass deep to the flexor retinaculum and the extensor tendons must pass under the extensor retinaculum. Flexor tendons on the palmar side are anchored to the phalanges by fibrous flexor sheaths to prevent “bow-stringing.” Synovial sheaths prevent friction from occurring between fibrous flexor sheaths and the tendons. Synovial sheaths are present on the dorsum of the hand deep to the extensor retinaculum. They extend from a point proximal to the retinaculum to a point in the proximal one third of the dorsum of the hand.
Anatomy of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint includes the insertion of the extensor tendon on the distal phalanx.
The PIP joint is the most commonly injured area in the hand. There is both anatomic and functional complexity to this joint, which consists of the articulation of the proximal end of the middle phalanx and the distal end of the proximal phalanx. It is a hinge joint with range of motion from 0 º to 120 º in the extension-flexion plane, with the bulk of static and dynamic stability provided by the surrounding ligaments and tendons.
The capsule surrounding the articular surface is composed of the volar plate, thick collateral ligaments, and the extensor tendon dorsally, which divides into 3 slips as it passes over the proximal phalanx. The central slip of the extensor tendon passes directly over the joint and inserts on the dorsal base of the middle phalanx. The lateral bands of the extensor tendon combine distally with the tendons of the intrinsic hand muscles (the retinacular ligaments) to form the extensor tendon that attach to the distal phalanx.
The thick ulnar and radial collateral ligaments of the PIP joint combine with the volar plate to provide lateral stability. The volar plate, a thick fibrocartilaginous structure, forms a sturdy attachment to the middle phalanx where it becomes continuous with the articular cartilage. This limits extension of the PIP joint beyond 0 º.
Proximally, the volar plate forms a thin continuous attachment with the synovial reflection. The lateral margins remain thick strong ligaments. This results in a cul-de-sac between the proximal half of the volar plate and the head of the proximal phalanx, which allows the base of the middle phalanx to glide along the articular surface of the proximal phalanx as the finger flexes. Thus, the volar plate becomes both a static stabilizer limiting hyperextension beyond 0 º and a dynamic stabilizer that influences the position of the flexor tendons at initiation of PIP joint flexion.
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Jay E Bowen, DO Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
Jay E Bowen, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Osteopathy, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, American College of Sports Medicine, American Osteopathic Association, American Osteopathic College of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, North American Spine Society, Physiatric Association of Spine, Sports and Occupational Rehabilitation
Disclosure: Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Lipogems<br/>Have a 5% or greater equity interest in: DataBiologics.
Gerard A Malanga, MD Founder and Partner, New Jersey Sports Medicine, LLC and New Jersey Regenerative Institute; Director of Research, Atlantic Health; Clinical Professor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School; Fellow, American College of Sports Medicine
Gerard A Malanga, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, American College of Sports Medicine, American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, International Spine Intervention Society, North American Spine Society
Disclosure: Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Lipogems.
Elena Napolitano, MD Staff Physician, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Alice Tzeng, MD Resident Physician, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference
Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.
Russell D White, MD Clinical Professor of Medicine, Clinical Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Department of Community and Family Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Truman Medical Center-Lakewood
Russell D White, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Sports Medicine, American Diabetes Association, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Craig C Young, MD Professor, Departments of Orthopedic Surgery and Community and Family Medicine, Medical Director of Sports Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin
Craig C Young, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, Phi Beta Kappa
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Andrew D Perron, MD Residency Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, Maine Medical Center
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
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