Pemphigus Vulgaris

Pemphigus Vulgaris

No Results

No Results

processing….

Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune, intraepithelial, blistering disease affecting the skin and mucous membranes. It is mediated by circulating autoantibodies directed against keratinocyte cell surfaces. A potentially life-threatening disease, it has a mortality rate of approximately 5-15%. [1]

The primary lesion of pemphigus vulgaris is a flaccid blister filled with clear fluid that arises on healthy skin or on an erythematous base (see the image below).

See Clues in the Oral Cavity: Are You Missing the Diagnosis?, a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify the causes of abnormalities of the oral cavity.

Mucous membranes

Mucous membranes of the oral cavity are involved in almost all patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

Patients may have ill-defined, irregularly shaped, gingival, buccal, or palatine erosions, which are painful and slow to heal.

Intact bullae are rare in the mouth.

Erosions may be seen on any part of the oral cavity, and they may spread to involve the larynx, with subsequent hoarseness.

In juvenile pemphigus vulgaris, stomatitis is the presenting complaint in more than 50% of cases.

Other mucosal surfaces may be involved, including the conjunctiva, [2] esophagus (causes odynophagia and/or dysphagia), [3] labia, vagina, cervix, vulva, [4] penis, urethra, nasal mucosa, and anus.

Skin

Primary lesion of pemphigus vulgaris is a flaccid blister filled with clear fluid that arises on healthy skin or on an erythematous base.

Blisters are fragile and may rupture, producing painful erosions (the most common skin presentation).

Nails

Acute or chronic paronychia, subungual hematomas, and nail dystrophies affecting one or several fingers or toes have been reported with pemphigus vulgaris. [5, 6]

Vegetating pemphigus vulgaris

Lesions in skin folds readily form vegetating granulations. In some patients, erosions tend to develop excessive granulation tissue and crusting; these individuals display more vegetating lesions.

See Clinical Presentation for more detail.

Laboratory studies include the following:

Histopathology: Demonstrates an intradermal blister; the earliest changes consist of intercellular edema with loss of intercellular attachments in the basal layer

Direct immunofluorescence (DIF): On normal-appearing perilesional skin [7] ; demonstrates in vivo deposits of antibodies and other immunoreactants, such as complement [8]

Indirect immunofluorescence (IDIF): If DIF results are positive; circulating intercellular antibodies are detected using IDIF in 80-90% of patients with pemphigus vulgaris [9]

See Workup for more detail.

The aim of pharmacologic therapy for pemphigus vulgaris is to reduce inflammatory response and autoantibody production. Medications used in the disease’s treatment include the following:

Corticosteroids: Discourage the inflammatory process by inhibiting specific cytokine production

Immunosuppressants: Should be considered early in the course of disease as steroid-sparing agents

See Treatment and Medication for more detail.

Pemphigus is derived from the Greek word pemphix meaning bubble or blister. Pemphigus describes a group of chronic bullous diseases, originally named by Wichman in 1791. The term pemphigus once included most bullous eruptions of the skin, but diagnostic tests have improved, and bullous diseases have been reclassified.

The term pemphigus refers to a group of autoimmune blistering diseases of the skin and mucous membranes characterized histologically by intraepidermal blister and immunopathologically by the finding of in vivo bound and circulating immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody directed against the cell surface of keratinocytes. The 3 primary subsets of pemphigus include pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus, and paraneoplastic pemphigus. [10] Each type of pemphigus has distinct clinical and immunopathologic features. Pemphigus vulgaris accounts for approximately 70% of pemphigus cases.

Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune, intraepithelial, blistering disease affecting the skin and mucous membranes and is mediated by circulating autoantibodies directed against keratinocyte cell surfaces. In 1964, autoantibodies against keratinocyte surfaces were described in patients with pemphigus. Clinical and experimental observations indicate that the circulating autoantibodies are pathogenic. An immunogenetic predisposition is well established.

Blisters in pemphigus vulgaris are associated with the binding of IgG autoantibodies to keratinocyte cell surface molecules. These intercellular or pemphigus vulgaris antibodies bind to keratinocyte desmosomes and to desmosome-free areas of the keratinocyte cell membrane. The binding of autoantibodies results in a loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, a process termed acantholysis. The antibody alone is capable of causing blistering without complement or inflammatory cells.

Intercellular adhesion in the epidermis involves several keratinocyte cell surface molecules. Pemphigus antibody binds to keratinocyte cell surface the molecules desmoglein 1 and desmoglein 3. The binding of antibody to desmoglein may have a direct effect on desmosomal adherens or may trigger a cellular process that results in acantholysis. Antibodies specific for nondesmosomal antigens also have been described in the sera of patients with pemphigus vulgaris; however, the role of these antigens in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris is not known.

Patients with the mucocutaneous form of pemphigus vulgaris have pathogenic antidesmoglein 1 and antidesmoglein 3 autoantibodies. Patients with the mucosal form of pemphigus vulgaris have only antidesmoglein 3 autoantibodies. Patients with active disease have circulating and tissue-bound autoantibodies of both the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) subclasses. [11, 12]

More than 80% of the patients with active disease produce autoantibodies to the desmosomal protein desmoglein. Disease activity correlates with antibody titers in most patients. [13] In patients with pemphigus vulgaris, the presence of antidesmoglein 1 autoantibodies, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), is more closely correlated with the course of the disease compared with antidesmoglein 3 autoantibodies. Lack of in vivo antibody binding (reversion to a negative result on direct immunofluorescence) is the best indicator of remission and can help predict a lack of flaring when therapy is tapered.

Pemphigus antibody fixes components of complement to the surface of epidermal cells. Antibody binding may activate complement with the release of inflammatory mediators and recruitment of activated T cells. T cells are clearly required for the production of the autoantibodies, but their role in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris remains poorly understood. Interleukin 2 is the main activator of T lymphocytes, and increased soluble receptors have been detected in patients with active pemphigus vulgaris.

Pemphigus vulgaris is uncommon, and the exact incidence and prevalence depends on the population studied.

Pemphigus vulgaris has been reported to occur worldwide. Pemphigus vulgaris incidence varies from 0.5-3.2 cases per 100,000 population. Pemphigus vulgaris incidence is increased in patients of Ashkenazi Jewish descent and those of Mediterranean origin. Few familial cases have been reported. As with endemic pemphigus, there is some evidence to suggest clustering near industrial sites. [14]

Pemphigus vulgaris affects persons of all races. The prevalence of pemphigus vulgaris is high in regions where the Jewish population is predominant. [15] For example, in Jerusalem, the prevalence of pemphigus vulgaris is estimated at 1.6 cases per 100,000 population; in Connecticut, the prevalence has been reported as 0.42 cases per 100,000 population. [16] The incidence in the United Kingdom is 0.68 case per 100 000 persons per year. The incidence of pemphigus vulgaris in Tunisia is estimated at 2.5 cases per million population per year (3.9 in women, 1.2 in men), while in France, the incidence is 1.3 cases per million population per year (no significant difference between men and women). [17] In Finland, where few people of Jewish or Mediterranean origin live, the prevalence is low, at 0.76 case per million population. [18]

The male-to-female ratio is approximately equal. In adolescence, girls are more likely to be affected than boys.

The mean age of onset is approximately 50-60 years; however, the range is broad, and disease onset in older individuals and in children has been described. Patients are younger at presentation in India than in Western countries. [19]

Pemphigus vulgaris is a potentially life-threatening autoimmune mucocutaneous disease with a mortality rate of approximately 5-15%. [1] Mortality in patients with pemphigus vulgaris is 3 times higher than the general population. Complications secondary to the use of high-dose corticosteroids contribute to the mortality rate. Morbidity and mortality are related to the extent of disease, the maximum dose of systemic steroids required to induce remission, and the presence of other diseases. Prognosis is worse in patients with extensive pemphigus vulgaris and in older patients.

Pemphigus vulgaris involves mucosa in 50-70% of patients. This may limit oral intake secondary to dysphagia. Blistering and erosions secondary to the rupture of blisters may be painful and may limit the patient’s daily activities. Additionally, Patients with pemphigus vulgaris typically heal without scarring unless the disease is complicated by severe secondary infection.

Reversion of direct immunofluorescence (DIF) to negative can be useful to predict sustained remission after withdrawal of medication. Plucked hairs are an alternative to skin biopsy to provide a specimen for immunofluorescence, as the pilar sheath epithelium of the anagen hair typically demonstrates immunofluorescence comparable to skin. DIF on plucked hairs may be more acceptable to the patient than serial skin biopsies. [20, 21]

The severity and natural history of pemphigus vulgaris are variable, but before the advent of steroids, most patients with pemphigus vulgaris died. Treatment with systemic steroids has reduced the mortality rate dramatically. [22]

Untreated, pemphigus vulgaris is often fatal because of the susceptibility to infection and fluid and electrolyte disturbances.

Most deaths occur during the first few years of disease, and, if the patient survives 5 years, the prognosis is good. Early disease probably is easier to control than widespread disease, and mortality rates may be higher if therapy is delayed.

Morbidity and mortality are related to the extent of disease, the maximum dose of prednisolone required to induce remission, and the presence of other diseases. The outlook is worse in older patients and in patients with extensive disease.

Prognosis is usually better in childhood than in adulthood.

A few rare cases of pemphigus vulgaris transitioning to pemphigus foliaceus have been reported.

Minimize trauma to the skin because the patient’s skin is fragile both from the disease and from the use of topical and systemic steroids.

The patient’s understanding of the disease and education about pemphigus vulgaris is important because of the chronic nature of this disorder.

Educate patients regarding their medications. They should know about dose, adverse effects, and symptoms of toxicity so they can report adverse effects to the physician.

Educate patients about appropriate wound care.

Ahmed AR, Moy R. Death in pemphigus. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1982 Aug. 7(2):221-8. [Medline].

Hodak E, Kremer I, David M, et al. Conjunctival involvement in pemphigus vulgaris: a clinical, histopathological and immunofluorescence study. Br J Dermatol. 1990 Nov. 123(5):615-20. [Medline].

Trattner A, Lurie R, Leiser A, et al. Esophageal involvement in pemphigus vulgaris: a clinical, histologic, and immunopathologic study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991 Feb. 24(2 Pt 1):223-6. [Medline].

Marren P, Wojnarowska F, Venning V, Wilson C, Nayar M. Vulvar involvement in autoimmune bullous diseases. J Reprod Med. 1993 Feb. 38(2):101-7. [Medline].

Berker DD, Dalziel K, Dawber RP, Wojnarowska F. Pemphigus associated with nail dystrophy. Br J Dermatol. 1993 Oct. 129(4):461-4. [Medline].

Engineer L, Norton LA, Ahmed AR. Nail involvement in pemphigus vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Sep. 43(3):529-35. [Medline].

Helander SD, Rogers RS 3rd. The sensitivity and specificity of direct immunofluorescence testing in disorders of mucous membranes. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994 Jan. 30(1):65-75. [Medline].

Diercks GF, Pas HH, Jonkman MF. Immunofluorescence of Autoimmune Bullous Diseases. Surg Pathol Clin. 2017 Jun. 10 (2):505-512. [Medline].

Schmidt E, Spindler V, Eming R, et al. Meeting Report of the Pathogenesis of Pemphigus and Pemphigoid Meeting in Munich, September 2016. J Invest Dermatol. 2017 Jun. 137 (6):1199-1203. [Medline].

Mentink LF, de Jong MC, Kloosterhuis GJ, Zuiderveen J, Jonkman MF, Pas HH. Coexistence of IgA antibodies to desmogleins 1 and 3 in pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus and paraneoplastic pemphigus. Br J Dermatol. 2007 Apr. 156(4):635-41. [Medline].

Bhol K, Mohimen A, Ahmed AR. Correlation of subclasses of IgG with disease activity in pemphigus vulgaris. Dermatology. 1994. 189 Suppl 1:85-9. [Medline].

Wilson CL, Wojnarowska F, Dean D, Pasricha JS. IgG subclasses in pemphigus in Indian and UK populations. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1993 May. 18(3):226-30. [Medline].

Fitzpatrick RE, Newcomer VD. The correlation of disease activity and antibody titers in pemphigus. Arch Dermatol. 1980 Mar. 116(3):285-90. [Medline].

Pietkiewicz P, Gornowicz-Porowska J, Bartkiewicz P, Bowszyc-Dmochowska M, Dmochowski M. Reviewing putative industrial triggering in pemphigus: cluster of pemphigus in the area near the wastewater treatment plant. Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2017 Jun. 34 (3):185-191. [Medline].

Pisanti S, Sharav Y, Kaufman E, Posner LN. Pemphigus vulgaris: incidence in Jews of different ethnic groups, according to age, sex, and initial lesion. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1974 Sep. 38(3):382-7. [Medline].

Simon DG, Krutchkoff D, Kaslow RA, Zarbo R. Pemphigus in Hartford County, Connecticut, from 1972 to 1977. Arch Dermatol. 1980 Sep. 116(9):1035-7. [Medline].

Bastuji-Garin S, Souissi R, Blum L, et al. Comparative epidemiology of pemphigus in Tunisia and France: unusual incidence of pemphigus foliaceus in young Tunisian women. J Invest Dermatol. 1995 Feb. 104(2):302-5. [Medline].

Hietanen J, Salo OP. Pemphigus: an epidemiological study of patients treated in Finnish hospitals between 1969 and 1978. Acta Derm Venereol. 1982. 62(6):491-6. [Medline].

Wilson C, Wojnarowska F, Mehra NK, Pasricha JS. Pemphigus in Oxford, UK, and New Delhi, India: a comparative study of disease characteristics and HLA antigens. Dermatology. 1994. 189 Suppl 1:108-10. [Medline].

Alexandru A, Zurac S, Salavastru CM, Andrei R, Tebeica T, Staniceanu F, et al. Direct immunofluorescence on hair follicles–present and future perspectives. Am J Dermatopathol. 2013 Jun. 35(4):472-6. [Medline].

Rao R, Dasari K, Shenoi SD, Balachandran C, Dinesh P. Monitoring the disease activity in pemphigus by direct immunofluorescence of plucked hair: a pilot study. Indian J Dermatol. 2013 Mar. 58(2):164. [Medline]. [Full Text].

Svecova D. Pemphigus vulgaris: a clinical study of 44 cases over a 20-year period. Int J Dermatol. 2015 Oct. 54 (10):1138-44. [Medline].

Ayoub N. [Pemphigus and pemphigus-triggering drugs]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2005 Jun-Jul. 132(6-7 Pt 1):595. [Medline].

Goldberg I, Ingher A, Brenner S. Pemphigus vulgaris triggered by rifampin and emotional stress. Skinmed. 2004 Sep-Oct. 3(5):294. [Medline].

Firooz A, Mazhar A, Ahmed AR. Prevalence of autoimmune diseases in the family members of patients with pemphigus vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994 Sep. 31(3 Pt 1):434-7. [Medline].

Ahmed AR, Wagner R, Khatri K, et al. Major histocompatibility complex haplotypes and class II genes in non-Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jun 1. 88(11):5056-60. [Medline]. [Full Text].

Lombardi ML, Mercuro O, Ruocco V, et al. Common human leukocyte antigen alleles in pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus Italian patients. J Invest Dermatol. 1999 Jul. 113(1):107-10. [Medline].

Reohr PB, Mangklabruks A, Janiga AM, DeGroot LJ, Benjasuratwong Y, Soltani K. Pemphigus vulgaris in siblings: HLA-DR4 and HLA-DQw3 and susceptibility to pemphigus. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992 Aug. 27(2 Pt 1):189-93. [Medline].

Szafer F, Brautbar C, Tzfoni E, et al. Detection of disease-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms in pemphigus vulgaris linked to the DQw1 and DQw3 alleles of the HLA-D region. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Sep. 84(18):6542-5. [Medline]. [Full Text].

Matzner Y, Erlich HA, Brautbar C, et al. Identical HLA class II alleles predispose to drug-triggered and idiopathic pemphigus vulgaris. Acta Derm Venereol. 1995 Jan. 75(1):12-4. [Medline].

Sinha AA, Brautbar C, Szafer F, et al. A newly characterized HLA DQ beta allele associated with pemphigus vulgaris. Science. 1988 Feb 26. 239(4843):1026-9. [Medline].

Cruz PD Jr, Coldiron BM, Sontheimer RD. Concurrent features of cutaneous lupus erythematosus and pemphigus erythematosus following myasthenia gravis and thymoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987 Feb. 16(2 Pt 2):472-80. [Medline].

Leshem YA, Katzenelson V, Yosipovitch G, David M, Mimouni D. Autoimmune diseases in patients with pemphigus and their first-degree relatives. Int J Dermatol. 2011 Jul. 50(7):827-31. [Medline].

Ettlin DA. Pemphigus. Dent Clin North Am. 2005 Jan. 49(1):107-25, viii-ix. [Medline].

Venugopal SS, Murrell DF. Diagnosis and clinical features of pemphigus vulgaris. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2012 May. 32(2):233-43, v-vi. [Medline].

Hern S, Vaughan Jones SA, et al. Pemphigus vulgaris in pregnancy with favourable foetal prognosis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1998 Nov. 23(6):260-3. [Medline].

Judd KP, Lever WF. Correlation of antibodies in skin and serum with disease severity in pemphigus. Arch Dermatol. 1979 Apr. 115(4):428-32. [Medline].

Cholera M, Chainani-Wu N. Management of Pemphigus Vulgaris. Adv Ther. 2016 Jun. 33 (6):910-58. [Medline].

Chams-Davatchi C, Daneshpazhooh M. Prednisolone dosage in pemphigus vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005 Sep. 53(3):547. [Medline].

Tabrizi MN, Chams-Davatchi C, Esmaeeli N, et al. Accelerating effects of epidermal growth factor on skin lesions of pemphigus vulgaris: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007 Jan. 21(1):79-84. [Medline].

El Tal AK, Posner MR, Spigelman Z, Ahmed AR. Rituximab: a monoclonal antibody to CD20 used in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Sep. 55(3):449-59. [Medline].

Fatourechi MM, el-Azhary RA, Gibson LE. Rituximab: applications in dermatology. Int J Dermatol. 2006 Oct. 45(10):1143-55; quiz 1155. [Medline].

Schmidt E, Hunzelmann N, Zillikens D, Brocker EB, Goebeler M. Rituximab in refractory autoimmune bullous diseases. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2006 Jul. 31(4):503-8. [Medline].

Schmidt E, Seitz CS, Benoit S, Brocker EB, Goebeler M. Rituximab in autoimmune bullous diseases: mixed responses and adverse effects. Br J Dermatol. 2007 Feb. 156(2):352-6. [Medline].

Leshem YA, David M, Hodak E, Waitman DA, Vardy D, Israeli M, et al. A prospective study on clinical response and cell-mediated immunity of pemphigus patients treated with rituximab. Arch Dermatol Res. 2013 Apr 17. [Medline].

Balighi K, Daneshpazhooh M, Khezri S, Mahdavi-nia M, Hajiseyed-javadi M, Chams-Davatchi C. Adjuvant rituximab in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris: a phase II clinical trial. Int J Dermatol. 2013 Jul. 52(7):862-7. [Medline].

Boggs W. Fixed-Dose Rituximab Provides Durable Remission of Pemphigus. medscape [serial online]. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/820533. Accessed: March 3, 2014.

Schmidt E. Rituximab as first-line treatment of pemphigus. Lancet. 2017 May 20. 389 (10083):1956-1958. [Medline].

Joly P, Maho-Vaillant M, Prost-Squarcioni C, et al. First-line rituximab combined with short-term prednisone versus prednisone alone for the treatment of pemphigus (Ritux 3): a prospective, multicentre, parallel-group, open-label randomised trial. Lancet. 2017 May 20. 389 (10083):2031-2040. [Medline].

el-Darouti M, Marzouk S, Abdel Hay R, et al. The use of sulfasalazine and pentoxifylline (low-cost antitumour necrosis factor drugs) as adjuvant therapy for the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris: a comparative study. Br J Dermatol. 2009 Aug. 161(2):313-9. [Medline].

Boggs W. Methotrexate Effective as Adjuvant for Treating Pemphigus Vulgaris. Medscape. Jul 03 2013. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/807342. Accessed: July 16, 2013.

Tran KD, Wolverton JE, Soter NA. Methotrexate in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris: Experience in 23 patients. Br J Dermatol. 2013 Jun 18. [Medline].

Werth VP, Fivenson D, Pandya AG, et al. Multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of dapsone as a glucocorticoid-sparing agent in maintenance-phase pemphigus vulgaris. Arch Dermatol. 2008 Jan. 144(1):25-32. [Medline].

Quaresma MV, Bernardes Filho F, Hezel J, Peretti MC, Kac BK, Azulay-Abulafia L. Dapsone in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris: adverse effects and its importance as a corticosteroid sparing agent. An Bras Dermatol. 2015 Jun. 90 (3 Suppl 1):51-4. [Medline].

Yeh SW, Sami N, Ahmed RA. Treatment of pemphigus vulgaris: current and emerging options. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2005. 6(5):327-42. [Medline].

Bystryn JC, Jiao D. IVIg selectively and rapidly decreases circulating pathogenic autoantibodies in pemphigus vulgaris. Autoimmunity. 2006 Nov. 39(7):601-7. [Medline].

Green MG, Bystryn JC. Effect of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy on serum levels of IgG1 and IgG4 antidesmoglein 1 and antidesmoglein 3 antibodies in pemphigus vulgaris. Arch Dermatol. 2008 Dec. 144(12):1621-4. [Medline].

Mittmann N, Chan B, Knowles S, Mydlarski PR, Cosentino L, Shear N. Effect of intravenous immunoglobulin on prednisone dose in patients with pemphigus vulgaris. J Cutan Med Surg. 2006 Sep-Oct. 10(5):222-7. [Medline].

Mydlarski PR, Ho V, Shear NH. Canadian consensus statement on the use of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in dermatology. J Cutan Med Surg. 2006 Sep-Oct. 10(5):205-21. [Medline].

Amagai M, Ikeda S, Shimizu H, et al. A randomized double-blind trial of intravenous immunoglobulin for pemphigus. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009 Apr. 60(4):595-603. [Medline].

Asarch A, Razzaque Ahmed A. Treatment of juvenile pemphigus vulgaris with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Pediatr Dermatol. 2009 Mar-Apr. 26(2):197-202. [Medline].

Bakos L, Zoratto G, Brunetto L, Mazzotti N, Cartell A. Photodynamic therapy: a useful adjunct therapy for recalcitrant ulceration in pemphigus vulgaris. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009 May. 23(5):599-600. [Medline].

Oyama N, Togashi A, Nomura E, Kaneko F. Successful treatment with oral mizoribine in refractory ocular manifestation of mucosal pemphigus vulgaris: A unique response to different immunosuppressive drugs. Dermatol Ther. 2016 Jul 15. [Medline].

Higashihara T, Kawase M, Kobayashi M, Hara M, Matsuzaki H, Uni R, et al. Evaluating the Efficacy of Double-Filtration Plasmapheresis in Treating Five Patients With Drug-Resistant Pemphigus. Ther Apher Dial. 2017 Jun. 21 (3):243-247. [Medline].

Aberer W, Wolff-Schreiner EC, Stingl G, Wolff K. Azathioprine in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris. A long-term follow-up. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987 Mar. 16(3 Pt 1):527-33. [Medline].

Baskan EB, Yilmaz M, Tunali S, Saricaoglu H. Efficacy and safety of long-term mycophenolate sodium therapy in pemphigus vulgaris. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009 Mar 17. [Medline].

Jackson AP, Hall AG, McLelland J. Thiopurine methyltransferase levels should be measured before commencing patients on azathioprine. Br J Dermatol. 1997 Jan. 136(1):133-4. [Medline].

Snow JL, Gibson LE. The role of genetic variation in thiopurine methyltransferase activity and the efficacy and/or side effects of azathioprine therapy in dermatologic patients. Arch Dermatol. 1995 Feb. 131(2):193-7. [Medline].

Tavadia SM, Mydlarski PR, Reis MD, et al. Screening for azathioprine toxicity: a pharmacoeconomic analysis based on a target case. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Apr. 42(4):628-32. [Medline].

Beissert S, Mimouni D, Kanwar AJ, Solomons N, Kalia V, Anhalt GJ. Treating pemphigus vulgaris with prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Aug. 130(8):2041-8. [Medline].

Strowd LC, Taylor SL, Jorizzo JL, Namazi MR. Therapeutic ladder for pemphigus vulgaris: emphasis on achieving complete remission. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Mar. 64(3):490-4. [Medline].

Ahmed AR, Spigelman Z, Cavacini LA, Posner MR. Treatment of pemphigus vulgaris with rituximab and intravenous immune globulin. N Engl J Med. 2006 Oct 26. 355(17):1772-9. [Medline].

Lolis M, Toosi S, Czernik A, Bystryn JC. Effect of intravenous immunoglobulin with or without cytotoxic drugs on pemphigus intercellular antibodies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Mar. 64(3):484-9. [Medline].

Sharma VK, Khandpur S. Evaluation of cyclophosphamide pulse therapy as an adjuvant to oral corticosteroid in the management of pemphigus vulgaris. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2013 Aug. 38 (6):659-64. [Medline].

Rituxan (rituximab) [package insert]. South San Francisco, Calif: Genentech, Inc. June 2018. Available at [Full Text].

Bassam Zeina, MD, PhD Consulting Staff, Department of Dermatology, Milton Keynes Hospital, UK

Bassam Zeina, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: British Medical Association, Royal Society of Medicine, British Association of Dermatologists

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Nicole Sakka, MBBS Foundation Year 2, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital, Liverpool, UK

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Sohail Mansoor, MBBS, MSc Dermatologist and Lead Physician in Dermatologic Surgery, Department of Dermatology, Barnet Hospital, UK

Sohail Mansoor, MBBS, MSc is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Royal College of Physicians, American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Richard P Vinson, MD Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Dermatology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Paul L Foster School of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Mountain View Dermatology, PA

Richard P Vinson, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Texas Medical Association, Association of Military Dermatologists, Texas Dermatological Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Jeffrey P Callen, MD Professor of Medicine (Dermatology), Chief, Division of Dermatology, University of Louisville School of Medicine

Jeffrey P Callen, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, American College of Rheumatology

Disclosure: Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Lilly; Amgen <br/>Received honoraria from UpToDate for author/editor; Received honoraria from JAMA Dermatology for associate editor; Received royalty from Elsevier for book author/editor; Received dividends from trust accounts, but I do not control these accounts, and have directed our managers to divest pharmaceutical stocks as is fiscally prudent from Stock holdings in various trust accounts include some pharmaceutical companies and device makers for i inherited these trust accounts; for: Allergen; Celgene; Pfizer; 3M; Johnson and Johnson; Merck; Abbott Laboratories; AbbVie; Procter and Gamble; Amgen.

Dirk M Elston, MD Professor and Chairman, Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine

Dirk M Elston, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Abby S Van Voorhees, MD Assistant Professor, Director of Psoriasis Services and Phototherapy Units, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania

Abby S Van Voorhees, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Women’s Dermatologic Society, National Psoriasis Foundation, American Medical Association, Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Received honoraria from Amgen for consulting; Received honoraria from Abbott for consulting; Partner received salary from Merck for management position; Received honoraria from Abbott for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Amgen for review panel membership; Received honoraria from Centocor for consulting; Received honoraria from Leo for consulting; Received none from Merck for other.

The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous author, Mohsin Ali, MBBS, FRCP, MRCP, to the development and writing of this article.

Pemphigus Vulgaris

Research & References of Pemphigus Vulgaris|A&C Accounting And Tax Services
Source