Mycobacterium Xenopi

Mycobacterium Xenopi

No Results

No Results

processing….

Researchers first described Mycobacterium xenopi in 1959 after isolating it from skin lesions of the South African toad Xenopus laevis.M xenopi, a slow-growing, nontuberculous mycobacterium, is often considered to be a saprophyte or an environmental contaminant. It grows optimally at 45°C (113°F) and has been found, occasionally in large numbers, in hospital hot water supplies at the outlet valves of water heaters. [1, 2] M xenopi colonization occurs from ingestion or inhalation of, or cutaneous exposure to, organisms in water, soil, or airborne particles. Colonization of hospital water systems is associated with infection, disease, and nosocomial isolation. 

M xenopi has low pathogenicity, and host impairment is required to contract disease from the organism. Most M xenopi infections occur in the lungs, usually in patients with preexisting lung disease or with predisposing conditions (eg, extrapulmonary malignancy, alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection). Extrapulmonary and disseminated disease may develop in patients with AIDS or other immunodeficiencies.

For pulmonary disease, inhalation of infected airborne particles is the usual route of infection. For skin and soft tissue infections, direct contact through penetrating injuries and surgical procedures provide the route. Person-to-person transmission of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease has never been documented.

United States

Surveillance data for M xenopi infection are not available because such infection is not a reportable disease. More than 500 cases have been reported, but only approximately 70 cases seem to document true disease.

International

Prevalence is unknown.

Subjects with documented M xenopi infections are divided into the following broad categories:

The first group comprises young, severely immunocompromised individuals in whom M xenopi infection occurs as an opportunistic infection that may then become disseminated, conferring a high risk of mortality and morbidity. Persons with CD4+ cell counts of less than 50/µL are susceptible hosts for pathogens such as M xenopi. M xenopi can cause 2 patterns of disease in these patients: localized pulmonary disease that can mimic tuberculosis in persons with early-stage HIV infection and disseminated disease in those with advanced AIDS.

The second group comprises immunocompetent adults with chronic lung disease or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in whom M xenopi infection usually follows a long-term, indolent course.

No racial predilection has been identified.

No predilection for either sex has been demonstrated.

No age predilection has been reported.

Sebakova H, Kozisek F, Mudra R, Kaustova J, Fiedorova M, Hanslikova D, et al. Incidence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in four hot water systems using various types of disinfection. Can J Microbiol. 2008 Nov. 54(11):891-8. [Medline].

Hussein Z, Landt O, Wirths B, Wellinghausen N. Detection of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in hospital water by culture and molecular methods. Int J Med Microbiol. 2009 Apr. 299(4):281-90. [Medline].

Salmon JH, Direz G, Ziza JM, Desplaces N, Brochot P, Eschard JP. Discitis and sacroiliitis diagnosed 15years after iatrogenic Mycobacterium xenopi inoculation. Joint Bone Spine. 2012 Mar 9. [Medline].

Portillo ME, Sánchez F, Vicente E, Salvadó M. [Trochanteric bursitis due to Mycobacterium xenopi in a patient with pharmacological immunosuppression]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2011 May. 29(5):399-401. [Medline].

Varghese B1, Memish Z, Abuljadayel N, Al-Hakeem R, Alrabiah F, Al-Hajoj SA. Emergence of clinically relevant Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial infections in Saudi Arabia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. May 2013. 7:2234. [Medline].

Alvarez-Uria G, Falcó V, Martín-Casabona N, Crespo M, Villar Del Saz S, Curran A, et al. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria in the sputum of HIV-infected patients: infection or colonization?. Int J STD AIDS. 2009 Mar. 20(3):193-5. [Medline].

De Lorenzi D, Solano-Gallego L. Tracheal granuloma because of infection with a novel mycobacterial species in an old FIV-positive cat. J Small Anim Pract. 2009 Mar. 50(3):143-6. [Medline].

Carrillo MC1, Patsios D, Wagnetz U, Jamieson F, Marras TK. Comparison of the Spectrum of Radiologic and Clinical Manifestations of Pulmonary Disease Caused by Mycobacterium avium Complex and Mycobacterium xenopi. Can Assoc Radiol J. December 2013. 47-48. [Medline].

Al Jarad N, Demertzis P, Jones DJ, et al. Comparison of characteristics of patients and treatment outcome for pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection and pulmonary tuberculosis. Thorax. 1996 Feb. 51(2):137-9. [Medline].

American Thoracic Society. Diagnosis and treatment of disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. This official statement of the American Thoracic Society was approved by the Board of Directors, March 1997. Medical Section of the American Lung Association. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997 Aug. 156(2 Pt 2):S1-25. [Medline].

Andrejak C, Lescure FX, Pukenyte E, et al. Mycobacterium xenopi pulmonary infections: a multicentric retrospective study of 136 cases in north-east France. Thorax. 2009 Apr. 64(4):291-6. [Medline].

Andréjak C, Lescure FX, Pukenyte E, Douadi Y, Yazdanpanah Y, Laurans G, et al. Mycobacterium xenopi pulmonary infections: a multicentric retrospective study of 136 cases in north-east France. Thorax. 2009 Apr. 64(4):291-6. [Medline].

Ausina V, Barrio J, Luquin M, et al. Mycobacterium xenopi infections in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1988 Dec 1. 109(11):927-8. [Medline].

Banks J, Hunter AM, Campbell IA, et al. Pulmonary infection with mycobacterium xenopi: review of treatment and response. Thorax. 1984 May. 39(5):376-82. [Medline].

Bennett SN, Peterson DE, Johnson DR, et al. Bronchoscopy-associated Mycobacterium xenopi pseudoinfections. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994 Jul. 150(1):245-50. [Medline].

Bishburg E, Zucker MJ, Baran DA, Arroyo LH. Mycobacterium xenopi infection after heart transplantation: an unreported pathogen. Transplant Proc. 2004 Nov. 36(9):2834-6. [Medline].

Chen F, Sethi G, Goldin R, et al. Concurrent granulomatous Pneumocystis carinii and Mycobacterium xenopi pneumonia: an unusual manifestation of HIV immune reconstitution disease. Thorax. 2004 Nov. 59(11):997-9. [Medline].

Costrini AM, Mahler DA, Gross WM, et al. Clinical and roentgenographic features of nosocomial pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium xenopi. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1981 Jan. 123(1):104-9. [Medline].

David E. Griffith, Timothy Aksamit, Barbara A. Brown-Elliott, Antonino Catanzaro, Charles Daley, Fred Gordin, et al. An Official ATS/IDSA Statement: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Diseases. [Full Text].

el-Helou P, Rachlis A, Fong I, et al. Mycobacterium xenopi infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Aug. 25(2):206-10. [Medline].

El-Solh AA, Nopper J, Abdul-Khoudoud MR, et al. Clinical and radiographic manifestations of uncommon pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in AIDS patients. Chest. 1998 Jul. 114(1):138-45. [Medline].

Eng RH, Forrester C, Smith SM, Sobel H. Mycobacterium xenopi infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Chest. 1984 Jul. 86(1):145-7. [Medline].

First randomised trial of treatments for pulmonary disease caused by M avium intracellulare, M malmoense, and M xenopi in HIV negative patients: rifampicin, ethambutol and isoniazid versus rifampicin and ethambutol. Thorax. 2001 Mar. 56(3):167-72. [Medline].

Griffith DE, Girard WM, Wallace RJ Jr. Clinical features of pulmonary disease caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria. An analysis of 154 patients. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 May. 147(5):1271-8. [Medline].

Hadjiliadis D, Adlakha A, Prakash UB. Rapidly growing mycobacterial lung infection in association with esophageal disorders. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999 Jan. 74(1):45-51. [Medline].

Ibarra MR, Algarabel PA, Marquina C, Arnaudas JI, del Moral A, Pareti L. Magnetic phase diagram and anisotropy of pseudoternary (ErxDy1-x)2Fe14B compounds. Phys Rev B Condens Matter. 1989 Apr 1. 39(10):7081-7088. [Medline].

Jiva TM, Jacoby HM, Weymouth LA, et al. Mycobacterium xenopi: innocent bystander or emerging pathogen?. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Feb. 24(2):226-32. [Medline].

Koizumi JH, Sommers HM. Mycobacterium xenopi and pulmonary disease. Am J Clin Pathol. 1980 Jun. 73(6):826-30. [Medline].

Kotloff RM. Infection caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria: clinical aspects. Semin Roentgenol. 1993 Apr. 28(2):131-8. [Medline].

Lavy A, Rusu R, Mates A. Mycobacterium xenopi, a potential human pathogen. Isr J Med Sci. 1992 Nov. 28(11):772-5. [Medline].

Maimon N, Brunton J, Chan AK, Marras TK. Fatal pulmonary Mycobacterium xenopi in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis receiving etanercept. Thorax. 2007 Aug. 62(8):739-40. [Medline].

Majoor CJ, Schreurs AJ, Weers-Pothoff G. Mycobacterium xenopi infection in an immunosuppressed patient with Crohn’s disease. Thorax. 2004 Jul. 59(7):631-2. [Medline].

Martin-Penagos L, Rodrigo E, Ruiz JC, et al. Lung cavitation due to Mycobacterium xenopi in a renal transplant recipient. Transpl Infect Dis. 2009 Jun. 11(3):249-52. [Medline].

Massachusetts General Hospital. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 17-1989. A 58-year-old man with cavitary lung disease. N Engl J Med. 1989 Apr 27. 320(17):1130-9. [Medline].

Matsui Y, Tamura A, Nagayama N, Akashi S, Araki K, Kimura H, et al. [Review of pulmonary Mycobacterium xenopi infection cases: 11 cases of our own and 18 other cases reported in Japan]. Kekkaku. 2010 Aug. 85(8):647-53. [Medline].

Meybeck A, Fortin C, Abgrall S, et al. Spondylitis due to Mycobacterium xenopi in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patient: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Mar. 43(3):1465-6. [Medline].

Miller WC, Perkins MD, Richardson WJ, Sexton DJ. Pott’s disease caused by Mycobacterium xenopi: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Dec. 19(6):1024-8. [Medline].

Miller WT, Miller WT. Pulmonary infections with atypical mycobacteria in the normal host. Semin Roentgenol. 1993 Apr. 28(2):139-49. [Medline].

O’Brien RJ, Geiter LJ, Snider DE Jr. The epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases in the United States. Results from a national survey. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987 May. 135(5):1007-14. [Medline].

Olivier KN, Weber DJ, Lee JH, Handler A, Tudor G, Molina PL, et al. Nontuberculous mycobacteria. II: nested-cohort study of impact on cystic fibrosis lung disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Mar 15. 167(6):835-40. [Medline].

Olivier KN, Weber DJ, Wallace RJ Jr, Faiz AR, Lee JH, Zhang Y. Nontuberculous mycobacteria. I: multicenter prevalence study in cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Mar 15. 167(6):828-34. [Medline].

Portaels F. Epidemiology of mycobacterial diseases. Clin Dermatol. 1995 May-Jun. 13(3):207-22. [Medline].

Primm TP, Lucero CA, Falkinham JO 3rd. Health impacts of environmental mycobacteria. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004 Jan. 17(1):98-106. [Medline]. [Full Text].

Schmitt H, Schnitzler N, Riehl J, et al. Successful treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium xenopi infection in a natural killer cell-deficient patient with clarithromycin, rifabutin, and sparfloxacin. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Jul. 29(1):120-4. [Medline].

Schwabacher H. A strain of Mycobacterium isolated from skin lesions of a cold-blooded animal, Xenopus laevis, and its relation to atypical acid-fast bacilli occurring in man. J Hyg (Lond). 1959 Mar. 57(1):57-67. [Medline].

Shafer RW, Sierra MF. Mycobacterium xenopi, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium kansasii, and other nontuberculous mycobacteria in an area of endemicity for AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Jul. 15(1):161-2. [Medline].

Simor AE, Salit IE, Vellend H. The role of Mycobacterium xenopi in human disease. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1984 Mar. 129(3):435-8. [Medline].

Smith MJ, Citron KM. Clinical review of pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium xenopi. Thorax. 1983 May. 38(5):373-7. [Medline].

Sniadack DH, Ostroff SM, Karlix MA, et al. A nosocomial pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium xenopi due to a contaminated potable water supply: lessons in prevention. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1993 Nov. 14(11):636-41. [Medline].

Thaunat O, Morelon E, Stern M, et al. Mycobacterium xenopi pulmonary infection in two renal transplant recipients under sirolimus therapy. Transpl Infect Dis. 2004 Dec. 6(4):179-82. [Medline].

Torkko P, Suomalainen S, Iivanainen E, Suutari M, Tortoli E, Paulin L. Mycobacterium xenopi and related organisms isolated from stream waters in Finland and description of Mycobacterium botniense sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2000 Jan. 50 Pt 1:283-9. [Medline].

van Ingen J, Boeree MJ, de Lange WC, Hoefsloot W, Bendien SA, Magis-Escurra C. Mycobacterium xenopi clinical relevance and determinants, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Mar. 14(3):385-9. [Medline].

Varadi RG, Marras TK. Pulmonary Mycobacterium xenopi infection in non-HIV-infected patients: a systematic review. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009 Oct. 13(10):1210-8. [Medline].

Wang HX, Yue J, Han M, Yang JH, Gao RL, Jing LJ. Nontuberculous mycobacteria: susceptibility pattern and prevalence rate in Shanghai from 2005 to 2008. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010 Jan 20. 123(2):184-7. [Medline].

Witty LA, Tapson VF, Piantadosi CA. Isolation of mycobacteria in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Medicine (Baltimore). 1994 Mar. 73(2):103-9. [Medline].

Wolinsky E. Mycobacterial diseases other than tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Jul. 15(1):1-10. [Medline].

Zurawski CA, Cage GD, Rimland D, Blumberg HM. Pneumonia and bacteremia due to Mycobacterium celatum masquerading as Mycobacterium xenopi in patients with AIDS: an underdiagnosed problem?. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Feb. 24(2):140-3. [Medline].

Alexander DC, Marras TK, Ma JH, Mirza S, Liu D, Kus JV, et al. Multilocus sequence typing of Mycobacterium xenopi. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Nov. 52 (11):3973-7. [Medline].

Mansoor Arif, MD Hospitalist, Department of Medicine, Mount Auburn Hospital; Instructor, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School

Mansoor Arif, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, Massachusetts Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Syed Faisal Mahmood, MBBS Associate Professor of Infectious Diseases, Program Director, Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program, Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Pakistan

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Aaron Glatt, MD Chairman, Department of Medicine, Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Epidemiologist, South Nassau Communities Hospital

Aaron Glatt, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for Physician Leadership, American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, American Thoracic Society, American Venereal Disease Association, Infectious Diseases Society of America, International AIDS Society, Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA Clinical Professor of Medicine, Florida State University College of Medicine; Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Central Florida College of Medicine

Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, International AIDS Society, Florida Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Martin Backer, MD Fellow in Combined Adult and Pediatric Infectious Diseases, State University of New York Health Sciences Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Wesley W Emmons, MD, FACP Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University; Consulting Staff, Infectious Diseases Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Christiana Care, Newark, DE

Wesley W Emmons, MD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Infectious Diseases Society of America, and International AIDS Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Sailaja Kolli, MD Fellow, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, The Brooklyn Hospital Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Klaus-Dieter Lessnau, MD, FCCP Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine; Medical Director, Pulmonary Physiology Laboratory; Director of Research in Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary Medicine, Lenox Hill Hospital

Klaus-Dieter Lessnau, MD, FCCP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Thoracic Society, and Society of Critical Care Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Larry I Lutwick, MD Professor of Medicine, State University of New York Downstate Medical School; Director, Infectious Diseases, Veterans Affairs New York Harbor Health Care System, Brooklyn Campus

Larry I Lutwick, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians and Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mycobacterium Xenopi

Research & References of Mycobacterium Xenopi|A&C Accounting And Tax Services
Source