Muscle Contraction Tension Headache

Muscle Contraction Tension Headache

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Tension-type headache (TTH) represents one of the most costly diseases because of its very high prevalence. TTH is the most common type of headache, and it is classified as episodic (ETTH) or chronic (CTTH). It had various ill-defined names in the past including tension headache, stress headache, muscle contraction headache, psychomyogenic headache, ordinary headache, and psychogenic headache. See Medscape’s Headache Resource Center for more information.

The International Headache Society (IHS) defines TTH more precisely and differentiates between the episodic and the chronic types.

The following is a modified outline of the IHS diagnostic criteria:

At least 10 previous headaches fulfilling the following criteria; number of days with such headache fewer than 15 per month

Headaches lasting from 30 minutes to 7 days

At least 2 of the following pain characteristics:

Pressing/tightening (nonpulsating) quality

Mild or moderate intensity (may inhibit but does not prohibit activities)

Bilateral location

No aggravation from climbing stairs or similar routine physical activity

Both of the following:

No nausea or vomiting

Photophobia and phonophobia absent or only one present

Secondary headache types not suggested or confirmed

See the list below:

Average headache frequency of more than 15 days per month for more than 6 months fulfilling the following criteria

At least 2 of the following pain characteristics:

Pressing/tightening (nonpulsating) quality

Mild or moderate intensity (may inhibit but does not prohibit activities)

Bilateral location

No aggravation from climbing stairs or similar routine physical activity

Both of the following:

No vomiting

No more than one of the following: nausea, photophobia, or phonophobia

Secondary headache types not suggested or confirmed

Pathogenesis of TTH is complex and multifactorial, with contributions from both central and peripheral factors. In the past, various mechanisms including vascular, muscular (ie, constant overcontraction of scalp muscles), and psychogenic factors were suggested. The more likely cause of these headaches is believed now to be abnormal neuronal sensitivity and pain facilitation, not abnormal muscle contraction.

Various evidence suggests that, like migraine, TTH is associated with exteroceptive suppression (ES2), abnormal platelet serotonin, and decreased cerebrospinal fluid beta-endorphin. In one study, plasma levels of substance P, neuropeptide Y, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were found to be normal in patients with CTTH and unrelated to the headache state.

Several concurrent pathophysiologic mechanisms may be responsible for TTH; according to Jensen, extracranial myofascial nociception is one of them. Headache is not related directly to muscle contraction, and possible hypersensitivity of neurons in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis has been suggested.

Bendtsen described central sensitization at the level of the spinal dorsal horn/trigeminal nucleus due to prolonged nociceptive inputs from pericranial myofascial tissues. [1] The central neuroplastic changes may affect regulation of peripheral mechanisms and can lead to increased pericranial muscle activity or release of neurotransmitters in myofascial tissues. This central sensitization may be maintained even after the initial eliciting factors have been normalized, resulting in conversion of ETTH into CTTH.

Further research is necessary to understand and clarify the mechanisms of TTH. Research may lead to the development of more specific and effective management in the future.

United States

TTH is the most common primary headache syndrome.

International

Rasmussen et al reported a lifetime prevalence of TTH of 69% in men and 88% in women in the Danish population. [2] The patient may experience more than one primary headache syndrome. In one study by Ulrich et al, the 1-year prevalence of TTH was the same among individuals with and without migraine. [3]

Women are slightly more likely to be affected than men.

The female-to-male ratio for TTH is approximately 1.4:1.

In CTTH, female preponderance is 1.9:1.

TTH can occur at any age, but onset during adolescence or young adulthood is common. It can begin in childhood.

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Manish K Singh, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Neurology, Teaching Faculty for Pain Management and Neurology Residency Program, Hahnemann University Hospital, Drexel College of Medicine; Medical Director, Neurology and Pain Management, Jersey Institute of Neuroscience

Manish K Singh, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Academy of Pain Medicine, American Headache Society, American Association of Physicians of Indian Origin, American Medical Association, American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS Professor Emeritus of Neurology and Psychiatry, Clinical Professor of Medicine, Clinical Professor of Family Medicine, Clinical Professor of Neurosurgery, State University of New York Upstate Medical University; Neuroscience Director, Department of Neurology, Crouse Irving Memorial Hospital

Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS is a member of the following medical societies: American College of International Physicians, American Heart Association, American Stroke Association, American Academy of Neurology, American Academy of Pain Medicine, American College of Forensic Examiners Institute, National Association of Managed Care Physicians, American College of Physicians, Royal College of Physicians, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Royal Society of Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Joseph Carcione, Jr, DO, MBA Consultant in Neurology and Medical Acupuncture, Medical Management and Organizational Consulting, Central Westchester Neuromuscular Care, PC; Medical Director, Oxford Health Plans

Joseph Carcione, Jr, DO, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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