Mitral regurgitation (MR) is defined as an abnormal reversal of blood flow from the left ventricle (LV) to the left atrium (LA). It is caused by disruption in any part of the mitral valve (MV) apparatus. The most common etiologies of MR include MV prolapse (MVP), rheumatic heart disease, infective endocarditis, annular calcification, cardiomyopathy, and ischemic heart disease. See the video below.
When associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute myocardial infarction (MI), significant acute MR is accompanied by the following symptoms:
Pulmonary edema (often the initial manifestation)
The following may be noted with chronic MR:
Some patients may remain asymptomatic for years
Patients may have normal exercise tolerance until systolic LV dysfunction develops, at which point they may experience symptoms of a reduced forward cardiac output
Patients may feel chest palpitations if AF develops as a result of chronic atrial dilatation
Patients with LV enlargement and more severe disease eventually progress to symptomatic congestive heart failure (CHF) with pulmonary congestion and edema
Palpation may reveal the following:
Brisk carotid upstroke and hyperdynamic cardiac impulse
Prominent LV filling wave
Auscultation may reveal the following:
Diminished S1 in acute MR and chronic severe MR with defective valve leaflets
Wide splitting of S2 as a result of early closure of the aortic valve
S3 as a result of LV dysfunction or increased blood flow across the MV
Accentuated P2 if pulmonary hypertension is present
Characteristic holosystolic murmur (or mid-systolic if etiology of MR is mitral valve prolapse)
See Presentation for more detail.
The following findings may be noted on chest radiography:
Evidence of LV enlargement due to volume overload (particularly in chronic MR), though pulmonary congestion may not be observed until heart failure has developed
Evidence of LA enlargement in the anteroposterior view
European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) echographic criteria  for the definition of severe MR are as follows:
Flail leaflet/ruptured papillary muscle/large coaptation defect
Very large color flow central jet or eccentric jet adhering, swirling, and reaching the posterior wall of the LA
Dense/triangular continuous-wave signal of regurgitant jet
Large flow convergence zone
American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) class I indications for transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) are as follows:
Baseline evaluation for LV size and function, right ventricular (RV) and LA size, pulmonary artery pressure, and severity of MR
Determining the etiology of MR
Annual or semiannual surveillance of LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and end-systolic dimension in asymptomatic patients with moderate-to-severe MR
Evaluation of the MV apparatus and LV function after a change in signs or symptoms
Evaluation of LV size and function and mitral valve hemodynamics in the initial evaluation after MV replacement or repair
ACC/AHA class I indications for serial TTE are as follows:
Asymptomatic patients with mild MR and no evidence of LV enlargement, LV dysfunction, or pulmonary hypertension – Yearly observation; serial TTE is not indicated
Patients with moderate MR – Yearly TTE
Asymptomatic patients with severe MR – TTE and clinical evaluation every 6-12 months to assess symptoms and development of LV dysfunction
ACC/AHA class I indications for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are as follows:
Assessment of etiology of severe MR in patients for whom surgery is recommended to determine the feasibility of MV repair
Evaluation of mitral valve and associated structures when TTE is nondiagnostic
Other tests include the following:
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) assessment
See Workup for more detail.
Medical therapy includes the following:
Afterload-reducing agents and diuretics in MR with symptoms or LV dysfunction
Beta blockers and biventricular pacing for primary treatment of LV dysfunction in functional MR
Consideration of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation in acute MR with hemodynamic compromise
In the presence of AF, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, digitalis, or a combination
Consideration of anticoagulation for patients who develop AF or have had MV replacement surgery
Prophylactic antibiotics before any dental procedure involving manipulation of gingival tissue, the periapical region of a tooth, or perforation of oral mucosa in patients with a prosthetic heart valve, previous infectious endocarditis, some forms of congenital heart disease, or valvulopathy in a cardiac transplant recipient
Consideration of inotropic agents in chronic severely symptomatic MR; consultation with a cardiothoracic surgeon
ACC/AHA indications for MV surgery are as follows:
Repair is preferred to replacement in most patients with moderate-to-severe (3+) or severe (4+) chronic MR who require surgery; patients should be referred to experienced surgical centers (class I)
Surgery is indicated for symptomatic patients with acute severe MR (class I)
Symptomatic chronic severe MR – Surgery is recommended for New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II-IV symptoms without severe LV dysfunction; chronic severe MR due to a primary abnormality of the MV apparatus and NYHA functional class III-IV symptoms and mild-to-moderate LV dysfunction in whom MV repair is highly likely (class IIa)
Asymptomatic chronic severe MR – Surgery is recommended for those with mild-to-moderate LV dysfunction (class I); repair is reasonable in experienced centers for those with preserved LV function in whom the likelihood of successful repair without residual MR is >90% (class IIa); surgery is reasonable for those with preserved LV function, new-onset AF, or pulmonary artery hypertension (class IIa)
ESC/EACTS indications for MV surgery in severe primary MR are as follows:
Repair is preferred to replacement when it is expected to be durable (class I)
Surgery is indicated in asymptomatic patients with LVEF >30% and end-systolic dimension < 55 mm (class I)
Surgery is indicated for asymptomatic patients with LV end-systolic dimension ≥45 mm and/or LVEF ≤60% (class I)
Surgery should be considered in asymptomatic patients with preserved LV function and new-onset AF or pulmonary hypertension (class IIa)
Surgery should be considered in asymptomatic patients with preserved LV function and a high likelihood of durable repair, low surgical risk and flail leaflet, and LV end-systolic dimension ≥40 mm (class IIa)
Surgery should be considered in patients with severe LV dysfunction refractory to medical therapy with a high likelihood of durable repair and low comorbidity (class IIa)
Surgery may be considered in patients with severe LV dysfunction refractory to medical therapy with low likelihood of durable repair and low comorbidity (class IIb)
Surgery may be considered in asymptomatic patients with preserved LV function, high likelihood of durable repair, low surgical risk, and either LA dilatation and sinus rhythm or pulmonary hypertension on exercise
Surgical MV repair remains the criterion standard intervention for severe MR; however, percutaneous double-orifice repair is a viable alternative for patients at high risk. In addition, in October 2013, the FDA approved the MitraClip valve repair system for patients with symptomatic degenerative MR with a prohibitive risk for mitral-valve surgery. [2, 3]
Mitral regurgitation (MR), the most frequent valvular heart disease, [4, 5, 6] is defined as an abnormal reversal of blood flow from the left ventricle to the left atrium. It is caused by disruption in any part of the mitral valve apparatus, which comprises the mitral annulus, the leaflets (a large anterior [aortic] leaflet and a small posterior [mural] leaflet), the chordae tendineae, and the papillary muscles (anteromedial and posterolateral). The most common etiologies of MR include mitral valve prolapse (MVP), rheumatic heart disease, infective endocarditis, annular calcification, cardiomyopathy and ischemic heart disease. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and management of MR differ with the chronicity of the disease and the etiology.
Mitral regurgitation (MR) can be caused by organic disease (eg, rheumatic fever, ruptured chordae tendineae, myxomatous degeneration, leaflet perforation) or a functional abnormality (ie, a normal valve may regurgitate [leak] because of mitral annular dilatation, focal myocardial dysfunction, or both). Congenital MR is rare but is commonly associated with myxomatous mitral valve disease. Alternatively, it can be associated with cleft of the mitral valve, as occurs in persons with Down syndrome, or an ostium primum atrial septal defect.
Acute MR is characterized by an increase in preload and a decrease in afterload causing an increase in end-diastolic volume (EDV) and a decrease in end-systolic volume (ESV). This leads to an increase in total stroke volume (TSV) to supranormal levels. However, forward stroke volume (FSV) is diminished because much of the TSV regurgitates as the regurgitant stroke volume (RSV). This, in turn, results in an increase in left atrial pressure (LAP). According to the Laplace principle, which states that ventricular wall stress is proportional to both ventricular pressure and radius, LV wall stress in the acute phase is markedly decreased since both of these parameters are reduced.
In chronic compensated MR, the left atrium (LA) and ventricle have sufficient time to dilate and accommodate the regurgitant volume. Thus LA pressure is often normal or only minimally elevated. Because of the left ventricular dilatation via the process of eccentric hypertrophy, TSV and FSV are maintained. Wall stress may be normal to slightly increased as the radius of the LV cavity increases but the end-diastolic LV pressure remains normal. As the LV progressively enlarges, the mitral annulus may stretch and prevent the mitral valve leaflets from coapting properly during systole, thus worsening the MR and LV dilatation.
In the chronic decompensated phase, cardiac dysfunction has developed, impairing both TSV and FSV (although ejection fraction still may be normal). This results in a higher ESV and EDV, which in turn causes a elevation of LV and LA pressure, ultimately leading to pulmonary edema and, if left untreated, cardiogenic shock.
Causes of acute mitral regurgitation (MR) include coronary artery disease, infectious endocarditis, chordae tendineae rupture (as with myxomatous valve disease), valvular surgery, and other conditions.
Coronary artery disease (ischemia or acute myocardial infarction) may result in papillary muscle dysfunction or rupture; it does not cause chordae tendineae dysfunction or rupture as they are not vascularized. The posteromedial papillary muscle is supplied by the terminal branch of the posterior descending artery and is more vulnerable to ischemic insult than the anterolateral papillary muscle, which is usually supplied by both the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries. Transient ischemia may result in transient MR associated with angina. Myocardial infarction or severe prolonged ischemia produces irreversible papillary muscle dysfunction and scarring.
Infectious endocarditis features include the following:
Rupture of chordae tendineae
Following valvular surgery, acute MR may occur as a result of trauma, percutaneous valvuloplasty, or suture interruption.
Other causes of acute MR include the following:
Tumors (most commonly atrial myxoma)
Myxomatous degeneration (mitral valve prolapse, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome)
Ruptured chordae tendineae (trauma, mitral valve prolapse, endocarditis, spontaneous)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (Libman-Sacks lesion)
Acute rheumatic fever (Carey Coombs murmur)
Acute global left ventricular dysfunction
Prosthetic mitral valve dysfunction
Causes of chronic MR include the following:
Rheumatic heart disease
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Myxomatous degeneration (mitral valve prolapse, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome)
Calcification of mitral valve annulus
Infective endocarditis (can affect normal, abnormal, or prosthetic mitral valves)
Ruptured chordae tendineae (trauma, mitral valve prolapse, endocarditis, spontaneous)
Functional MR (dilation of mitral valve annulus, anormal tethering of leaflets due to enlargement of LV cavity and stretch of papillary muscles and chordae [dilated cardiomyopathies, aneurysmal dilation of the left ventricle])
Systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve
Perivalvular prosthetic leak
Congenital (mitral valve clefts, mitral valve fenestrations, parachute mitral valve abnormality)
Drug-related (ergotamine, methysergide, pergolide, anorexiant medications)
Acute and chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) affect approximately 5 in 10,000 people. Mitral valve disease is the second most common valvular lesion, preceded only by aortic stenosis. Myxomatous degeneration has replaced rheumatic heart disease as the leading cause of mitral valvular abnormalities. Mitral valve prolapse has been estimated to be present in 4% of the normal population. With the aid of color Doppler echocardiography, mild MR can be detected in as many as 20% of middle-aged and older adults. MR is independently associated with female sex, lower body mass index, advanced age, renal dysfunction, prior myocardial infarction, prior mitral stenosis, and prior mitral valve prolapse. It is not related to dyslipidemia or diabetes.
In areas other than the Western world, rheumatic heart disease is the leading cause of MR.
There appears to be an association between recurrent mitral regurgitation (MR) after mitral valve (MV) repair in patients with degenerative MR and increased mortality and adverse LV remodeling.  Independent risk factors for recurrent MR after mitral valve repair include MV repair performed before 2000, preoperative atrial fibrillation, high LV end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD), prolapse of the isolated anterior leaflet or multiple segments, and absence of ring annuloplasty. LVEDD and repair without artificial chordae implantation appear to be predictors of MR progression. 
Outcomes for asymptomatic chronic severe degenerative MR are as follows:
Mortality ranges from 50-73% at 5 years.
Mortality in patients with preserved LV function ranges from 27-45%.
Sudden death may be as common as 1-8% per year in patients with a flail leaflet.
In a study of patients with low ejection fraction (EF) (regardless of ischemic or nonischemic etiology), the presence of functional MR is associated with a 2-fold greater risk of all-cause mortality and hospitalization at 1-5 years. 
Mitral valve surgery operative mortality includes the following:
Isolated mitral valve repair surgery carries a 2% mortality.
Mitral valve replacement surgery: 4% mortality for patients younger than 50 years; 17% mortality for patients older than 80 years.
Tribouilloy et al found that, in patients with organic MR due to flail leaflets, left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD) is independently associated with increased mortality. Analysis of results in 739 patients showed that LVESD ≥ 40 mm independently predicted overall mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-3.83) and cardiac mortality (HR 3.09; 95% CI, 1.35-7.09) under conservative management. Mortality risk increased linearly with LVESD >40 mm (HR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.04-1.27 per 1-mm increment). Tribouilloy et al conclude that these findings support prompt surgical rescue in patients with LVESD ≥40 mm but also suggest that operating on patients before LVESD reaches 40 mm will best preserve survival. 
Magne et al found that exercise pulmonary hypertension can be predicted using resting comprehensive echocardiography in asymptomatic patients with degenerative MR. 
[Guideline] Vahanian A, Alfieri O, Andreotti F, et al. Guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease (version 2012): The Joint Task Force on the Management of Valvular Heart Disease of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Eur Heart J. 2012 Oct. 33(19):2451-96. [Medline]. [Full Text].
O’Riordan M. FDA approves MitraClip for degenerative MR. October 25, 2013. Medscape [serial online]. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/813216. Accessed: October 28, 2013.
Abbott. Abbott’s first-in-class MitraClip device now available for U.S. patients [press release]. October 25, 2013. Available at http://www.abbott.com/press-release/abbotts-firstinclass-mitraclip-device-now-available-for-us-patients.htm. Accessed: October 28, 2013.
Sharma A, Goel S, Agarwal S. Percutaneous mitral valve interventions and heart failure. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017 Dec 27. [Medline].
Crousillat DR, Wood MJ. Valvular heart disease and heart failure in women. Heart Fail Clin. 2019 Jan. 15 (1):77-85. [Medline].
Kim JH, Lee SH, Joo HC, et al. Effect of recurrent mitral regurgitation after mitral valve repair in patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation. Circ J. 2017 Dec 25. 82 (1):93-101. [Medline].
Rossi A, Dini FL, Faggiano P, et al. Independent prognostic value of functional mitral regurgitation in patients with heart failure. A quantitative analysis of 1256 patients with ischaemic and non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Heart. 2011 Oct. 97(20):1675-80. [Medline].
Tribouilloy C, Grigioni F, Avierinos JF, et al. Survival implication of left ventricular end-systolic diameter in mitral regurgitation due to flail leaflets a long-term follow-up multicenter study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 Nov 17. 54(21):1961-8. [Medline].
Magne J, Lancellotti P, O’Connor K, et al. Prediction of exercise pulmonary hypertension in asymptomatic degenerative mitral regurgitation. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2011 Sep. 24(9):1004-12. [Medline].
Bach DS. 2017 ACC expert consensus decision pathway for mitral regurgitation. American College of Cardiology. Available at https://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/ten-points-to-remember/2017/10/18/09/33/2017-acc-expert-consensus-decision-on-mr. October 18,2017; Accessed: June 27, 2018.
[Guideline] O’Gara PT, Grayburn PA, Badhwar V, et al. 2017 ACC expert consensus decision pathway on the management of mitral regurgitation: a report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Expert Consensus Decision Pathways. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Nov 7. 70 (19):2421-49. [Medline]. [Full Text].
[Guideline] Nishimura RA, Otto CM, Bonow RO, et al, ACC/AHA Task Force Members. 2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014 Jun 10. 129(23):e521-643. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Pizarro R, Bazzino OO, Oberti PF, et al. Prospective validation of the prognostic usefulness of brain natriuretic peptide in asymptomatic patients with chronic severe mitral regurgitation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 Sep 15. 54(12):1099-106. [Medline].
Jung JC, Jang MJ, Hwang HY. Meta-analysis comparing mitral valve repair versus replacement for degenerative mitral regurgitation across all ages. Am J Cardiol. 2018 Nov 6. [Medline].
Hata M, Zittermann A, Hakim-Meibodi K, Borgermann J, Gummert J. Minimally invasive mitral valve repair or replacement for degenerative mitral regurgitation. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2018 Nov 21. [Medline].
Libby P, Bonow RO, MD, Zipes DP, Mann DL. Valvular Heart Disease. Braunwald’s Heart Disease. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. chap. 62.
Thourani VH, Weintraub WS, Guyton RA, et al. Outcomes and long-term survival for patients undergoing mitral valve repair versus replacement: effect of age and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting. Circulation. 2003 Jul 22. 108(3):298-304. [Medline].
Vahanian A, Iung B. Mitral regurgitation: Timing of surgery or interventional treatment. Herz. 2015 Dec 10. [Medline].
Rosenhek R, Rader F, Klaar U, et al. Outcome of watchful waiting in asymptomatic severe mitral regurgitation. Circulation. 2006 May 9. 113(18):2238-44. [Medline].
O’Riordan M. Early surgery bests “watchful waiting” in severe MR patients without symptoms. Medscape Medical News. Accessed August 19, 2013. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/809403.
Suri RM, Vanoverschelde JL, Grigioni F, et al. Association between early surgical intervention vs watchful waiting and outcomes for mitral regurgitation due to flail mitral valve leaflets. JAMA. 2013 Aug 14. 310(6):609-16. [Medline].
Otto CM. Surgery for mitral regurgitation: sooner or later?. JAMA. 2013 Aug 14. 310(6):587-8. [Medline].
[Guideline] Wilson W, Taubert KA, Gewitz M, et al. Prevention of infective endocarditis: guidelines from the American Heart Association: a guideline from the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Circulation. 2007 Oct 9. 116(15):1736-54. [Medline]. [Full Text].
O’Riordan M. Repair and surgery fare equally well in ischemic MR. Heartwire. November 18, 2013. [Full Text].
Barbieri A, Bursi F, Grigioni F, et al. Prognostic and therapeutic implications of pulmonary hypertension complicating degenerative mitral regurgitation due to flail leaflet: A Multicenter Long-term International Study. Eur Heart J. 2011 Mar. 32(6):751-759. [Medline].
Matsunaga A, Duran CM. Progression of tricuspid regurgitation after repaired functional ischemic mitral regurgitation. Circulation. 2005 Aug 30. 112(9 Suppl):I453-7. [Medline].
[Guideline] Nishimura RA, Otto CM, Bonow RO, et al. 2017 AHA/ACC focused update of the 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Jul 11. 70 (2):252-89. [Medline]. [Full Text].
[Guideline] Falk V, Baumgartner H, Bax JJ, et al, for the ESC Scientific Document Group. 2017 ESC/EACTS guidelines for the management of valvular heart disease. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2017 Oct 1. 52 (4):616-64. [Medline]. [Full Text].
[Guideline] Kron IL, LaPar DJ, Acker MA, et al, for the AATS Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation Consensus Guidelines Writing Committee. 2016 update to The American Association for Thoracic Surgery (AATS) consensus guidelines: Ischemic mitral valve regurgitation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017 May. 153 (5):e97-e114. [Medline].
[Guideline] Habib G, Lancellotti P, Antunes MJ, et al. 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis: The Task Force for the Management of Infective Endocarditis of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Endorsed by: European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS), the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). Eur Heart J. 2015 Nov 21. 36(44):3075-128. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Baddour LM, Wilson WR, Bayer AS, et al. Infective Endocarditis in Adults: Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Therapy, and Management of Complications: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015 Oct 13. 132(15):1435-86. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Kaneko H, Neuss M, Weissenborn J, Butter C. Prognostic significance of right ventricular dysfunction in patients with functional mitral regurgitation undergoing MitraClip. Am J Cardiol. 2016 Dec 1. 118 (11):1717-22. [Medline].
Fino C, Iacovoni A, Ferrero P, et al. Determinants of functional capacity after mitral valve annuloplasty or replacement for ischemic mitral regurgitation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2015 Jun. 149(6):1595-603. [Medline].
Feldman T, Cilingiroglu M. Percutaneous leaflet repair and annuloplasty for mitral regurgitation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Feb 1. 57(5):529-37. [Medline].
Feldman T, Foster E, Glower DG, et al. Percutaneous repair or surgery for mitral regurgitation. N Engl J Med. 2011 Apr 14. 364(15):1395-406. [Medline].
Castleberry AW, Williams JB, Daneshmand MA, et al. Surgical revascularization is associated with maximal survival in patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation: a 20-year experience. Circulation. 2014 Jun 17. 129 (24):2547-56. [Medline].
Zhaohua Y, Wei F, Fei X, Jiqiang Z, Junzhe D, Yangwu S. Concomitant CABG, Left Ventricular Restoration and Mitral Valve Repair for Ischemic Heart Disease. Heart Surg Forum. 2016 Dec 6. 19 (6):E272-5. [Medline].
Feldman T, Kar S, Elmariah S, et al, for the EVEREST II Investigators. Randomized comparison of percutaneous repair and surgery for mitral regurgitation: 5-Year results of EVEREST II. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Dec 29. 66(25):2844-54. [Medline].
Hachinohe D, Latib A, Agricola E, Colombo A. Repeat MitraClip for early recurrent mitral regurgitation. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2017 Dec 27. [Medline].
Acker MA, Parides MK, Perrault LP, et al for The Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network. Mitral-valve repair versus replacement for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jan 2. 370(1):23-32. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Bonow RO, Cheitlin MD, Crawford MH, Douglas PS. Task Force 3: valvular heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Apr 19. 45(8):1334-40. [Medline].
Carabello BA. Progress in mitral and aortic regurgitation. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2001 May-Jun. 43(6):457-75. [Medline].
Enriquez-Sarano M, Avierinos JF, Messika-Zeitoun D, et al. Quantitative determinants of the outcome of asymptomatic mitral regurgitation. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 3. 352(9):875-83. [Medline].
Fann JI, Ingels NB, Miller DC. Pathophysiology of mitral valve disease. Cardiac Surgery in the Adult. 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2008. chap 41.
Khanna D, Miller AP, Nanda NC, et al. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiographic assessment of mitral regurgitation severity: usefulness of qualitative and semiquantitative techniques. Echocardiography. 2005 Oct. 22(9):748-69. [Medline].
Mehta RH, Eagle KA, Coombs LP, et al. Influence of age on outcomes in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002 Nov. 74(5):1459-67. [Medline].
*Several criteria are provided but not all criteria for each category will be present. Severity of mild, moderate, or serve is dependent on data quality and integration with other clinical evidence.
†In secondary MR, true ERO is underestimated due to the crescentic shape of the proximal convergence
CAD = coronary heart disease; ERO = effective regurgitation orifice; HF = heart failure; IE = infective endocarditis; LA = left atrium; LV = left ventricular; LVEF = left ventricular ejection factor; LVESD = left ventricular end-systolic dimension; MR = mitral regurgitation; MV = mitral valve; TTE = transthoracic echocardiography.
Ivan Hanson, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Luis C Afonso, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Internal Medicine-Cardiology, Program Director of Cardiology Fellowship Program, Wayne State University; Director of Echocardiography Laboratory, Harper University Hospital
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference
Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.
Ronald J Oudiz, MD, FACP, FACC, FCCP Professor of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine; Director, Liu Center for Pulmonary Hypertension, Division of Cardiology, LA Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
Ronald J Oudiz, MD, FACP, FACC, FCCP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Cardiology, American College of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society, American College of Physicians, American Heart Association
Disclosure: Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Actelion, Bayer, Gilead, Lung Biotechnology, United Therapeutics<br/>Received research grant from: Actelion, Bayer, Gilead, Ikaria, Lung Biotechnology, Pfizer, Reata, United Therapeutics<br/>Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Actelion, Bayer, Gilead, Lung Biotechnology, Medtronic, Reata, United Therapeutics.
Terrence X O’Brien, MD, MS, FACC Professor of Medicine/Cardiology, Director, Clinical Cardiovascular Research, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine; Director, Echocardiography Laboratory, Veterans Affairs Medical Center of Charleston
Terrence X O’Brien, MD, MS, FACC is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, Heart Failure Society of America, South Carolina Medical Association
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Martin Gerard Keane, MD, FACC, FAHA Professor, Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine
Martin Gerard Keane, MD, FACC, FAHA is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Cardiology, American College of Physicians, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, Pennsylvania Medical Society, Phi Beta Kappa
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous authors Shivkumar H Jha, MD; Jatin Dave, MD, MPH; Kishorkumar Desai, MD; and Abraham G Kocheril, MD, FACC, FACP to the development and writing of this article.
Research & References of Mitral Regurgitation|A&C Accounting And Tax Services