Mitral Annular Calcification

Mitral Annular Calcification

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Calcification of various cardiovascular structures is associated with aging, chronic kidney disease, and following radiation therapy. [1, 2] Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is a chronic degenerative process of the mitral valve ring; it was first described in 1908 by Bonninger as associated with complete heart block. [3] Dewitzky presented detailed pathologic descriptions of 36 cases and demonstrated the close resemblance to a similar process that had been described in the aortic valve in 1904 by Monckeberg. [4]  Yater and Cornell in 1935 histopathologically demonstrated extension of a calcific mass into the Bundle of His leading to heart block. [5] Calcification of the annulus fibrosus of the mitral valve was commonly found in older people at autopsy and was considered to be a sequela of rheumatic heart disease. [6, 7] However, evidence of previous disease was often absent; the lesion is now generally regarded as the end stage of an inflammatory process.

MAC and atherosclerosis share similar risk factors, and the presence of MAC may reflect the intensity and duration of exposure to these risk factors. [8, 9] Interestingly, MAC has been proposed as a visible barometer of the burden of atherosclerotic disease. [10, 11] Mitral annular calcification is a growing problem in the elderly. It causes mitral stenosis and regurgitation, which are hard to treat. [12] Furthermore, studies have suggested that the presence of MAC is independently associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular death and stroke. [11, 13, 14]

Mitral annular calcification (MAC) and atherosclerosis are strongly associated. Early pathologic studies suggest that MAC and calcific aortic stenosis may be a part of the spectrum of atherosclerosis. [6, 7] The attachment points of the aortic and mitral valves to their respective annuli are sites of turbulent blood flow, which may induce endothelial injury and increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis. Calcifying valves contain sites of lipid accumulation and exhibit macrophage and T-cell infiltrates, presumably in response to endothelial injury. [15] Calcification within the mitral annulus has been reported to be accelerated by advanced age, systemic hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure with secondary hyperparathyroidism, conditions that increase annular stress (eg, mitral valve prolapse), and genetic abnormalities of the fibrous skeleton (eg, Marfan and Hurler syndromes). [15, 16, 17]

Previously thought to reflect a passive process, recent research has demonstrated that cardiac valve calcification is actively regulated and potentially modifiable. [18, 19, 20] Moreover, cardiac valves express markers of osteoblastic differentiation and calcify in a manner similar to normal osteogenesis, with lamellar bone evident in the majority of pathological specimens examined. [21]

Studies have shown that the prevalence of MAC in patients with end-stage renal disease is higher than in age-matched control subjects. [22, 23, 24, 25] The calcium-phosphate product correlates directly with the prevalence of MAC. [26] Although it was initially believed that high phosphate concentrations trigger vascular calcification simply by exceeding the calcium-phosphate solubility product (causing precipitation), studies have suggested that high phosphate levels induce vascular smooth muscle cells to differentiate into an osteoblastic phenotype. [16]

Caseous calcification of the mitral valve is a rare form of MAC that typically affects the posterior annulus. The contents of the cavity are composed of a mixture of calcium, fatty acid, and cholesterol, with a ‘‘toothpaste-like’’ texture, and may present as an intracardiac mass or cavity. [27, 28, 29]

The prevalence of mitral annular calcification (MAC) varies significantly among different populations and is also influenced by differences in age and the presence of comorbidities. In the Framingham study with an elderly population, the prevalence of MAC was 14%. [13] A study by Allison et al of middle-aged and elderly patients seen in a ”preventive health” clinic found a prevalence of 8%. [9] Other studies have shown lower prevalence rates, especially those including asymptomatic patients free of clinical coronary heart disease. [30]

In elderly people, the prevalence of MAC is significantly higher, as described in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a community-based cohort study of elderly individuals (mean age, 76 y). [1] The prevalence of MAC in this study was 42% and was strongly associated with the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among patients older than 85 years, the prevalence of MAC was 60%. [1] Notably, in the Framingham Heart Study, MAC was not found in those younger than 40 years. [30] In the study by Allison et al, each 10-year increase in age was associated with a 3.7-fold increase in the likelihood of MAC being present. [9]

Conflicting evidence exists regarding the occurrence of MAC between males and females. Although the Framingham Heart Study found that 72% of subjects with MAC were female, [13] the study by Allison et al observed a trend towards lower prevalence of MAC in women versus men (difference not statistically significant). [9] The population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study found a similar overall prevalence of MAC between sexes (4.6% in women and 5.6% in men, with a mean age of 59 y). [31] The prevalence increased with age; at age 70 years, 10% of women and 15% of men were found to have MAC. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) found a female predominance for MAC, observing a prevalence of 12% in women and 8% in men aged 45-84 years. [32]

Data on the prevalence of MAC in different racial groups are limited. A cohort that included a majority of Hispanic patients (mean age, 68 y) showed a prevalence of 26%. [33] The prevalence in a cohort of ARIC patients that included only black individuals (mean age, 59 y) was 4.9%. [31] According to data from the MESA cohort of patients aged 45-84 years, the prevalence of MAC was highest in white persons (12%), followed by Hispanic patients (10%) and then black patients (7%); it was lowest in Chinese subjects (5%). [32] Racial differences were not only observed in MAC but also in other valvular calcifications in a prior study. [34]

Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but there is no evidence that risk factor control influences progression of MAC.

Several studies have looked at associations between the presence of MAC and cardiovascular events. The Framingham Study followed 1197 subjects for 16 years and showed an association between MAC and CVD, CVD death, and all-cause death. Moreover, for each 1 mm increase in MAC, the risk of CVD, CVD death, and all-cause death increased by approximately 10%. [13]

In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) substudy restricted to black patients, MAC was associated with incident CVD events, defined as fatal coronary event, hospitalized myocardial infarction, or cardiac procedure. [31]

Mortality data in patients with MAC and nonvalvular atrial fibrillation was examined in the Belgrade Atrial Fibrillation Study. This prospective study followed 1056 middle-aged subjects for a mean of 9.9 years. Significant associations were found between MAC and all-cause death, CVD death, and the composite endpoint of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and all-cause death. [35]

In the Northern Manhattan Study of 1955 subjects with a mean follow up of 7.4 years, MAC was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and vascular death but not ischemic stroke. [33]

Complications of MAC include the following:

Stroke (associated with MAC but, in most cases, probably not directly caused by it)

Myocardial infarction (associated with MAC but probably not directly caused by it)

Atherosclerosis (associated with MAC but probably not directly caused by it)

Mitral regurgitation

Mitral stenosis

Arrhythmias (conduction disease may be associated with cardiac calcification generally)

Infective endocarditis

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Saurabh Sharma, MD Associate Cardiologist Guthrie Medical Group, Sayre, PA

Saurabh Sharma, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, American Medical Association, American Society for Preventive Cardiology, National Lipid Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Vincent M Figueredo, MD, FACC, FAHA Associate Chair, Cardiology Division, Director, Cardiovascular Diseases Fellowship Programs, Director, Cardiac Rehabilitation Program, Albert Einstein Medical Center; Associate Professor of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University

Vincent M Figueredo, MD, FACC, FAHA is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Gregg S Pressman, MD, FACC, FASE Associate Director, Cardiovascular Diseases Fellowship Program, Associate Director, Echocardiography Laboratory, Faculty, Department of Cardiology, Albert Einstein Medical Center; Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University

Gregg S Pressman, MD, FACC, FASE is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Cardiology, American Society of Echocardiography

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

David J Maron, MD, FACC, FAHA Clinical Professor of Medicine (Cardiovascular), Director, Preventive Cardiology, ISCHEMIA Trial Co-Chair/PI, Stanford University School of Medicine

David J Maron, MD, FACC, FAHA is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association

Disclosure: Received ownership interest from Cardiovascular Care Group for other.

Leandro Slipczuk, MD, PhD Resident Physician, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Jose F Condado Contreras, MD Resident Physician, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Jose N Codolosa, MD Chief Resident, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Subroto Acharjee, MD Fellow, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Albert Einstein Medical Center

Subroto Acharjee, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, American Medical Association, Delhi Medical Council

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

The authors wish to thank Dr. Huyen Tran and Dr. Joshua Clayton for their assistance with the computed tomography images.

Mitral Annular Calcification

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