Minimal Access Surgery in Pediatrics 

Minimal Access Surgery in Pediatrics 

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The field of surgery undergoes constant evolution. With the evolution of inhalation anesthetics at Massachusetts General Hospital in 1846, the field of surgery truly expanded. Before then, surgical procedures were avoided and, if performed, were brief. The best surgeon was the one who could perform an operation most rapidly, thereby causing less pain to a restrained and unanesthetized patient. [1]

Since the beginning, larger surgical incisions were necessary; exposure was the key to a safe and successful operation. Exposure is still essential, but it can now be obtained through very small incisions and a minimally invasive approach.

Minimal access surgery (MAS) has been in existence since the early 19th century. In 1795, Bozzini developed the Lichtleiter, a crude endoscope that used a candle as illumination, for exploring intracavitary organs through external orifices. [1] In 1868, Kussmaul performed esophagogastroscopy on a willing sword-swallower using his first open tube in the gullet, illuminated by the reflected light of gasoline lamp. [2] In 1901, Kelling performed the first examination of the abdomen using a cystoscope in a dog. [3]

A tremendous breakthrough occurred in 1966, when Hopkins invented the rod lens system. Around the same time, Semm developed an automatic insufflator that monitored intra-abdominal pressure and gas flow. Semm also performed the first incidental laparoscopic appendectomy in 1983.

MAS (in the form of laparoscopy) has been used by gynecologists for more than five decades. Its application to general surgery began when Muhe performed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1985. In 1987, Mouret and Dubois helped popularize this procedure, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy soon became the standard of care. [1] Since then, MAS has been applied to numerous other procedures both in the abdomen (laparoscopy) and in the chest (thoracoscopy), with good results.

The advantages of MAS were realized by surgeons operating on adults long before this approach was accepted in the pediatric community. Initially, performing MAS in the pediatric population was resisted for the following reasons:

In 1973, Gans and Berci were the pioneers in pediatric laparoscopy. [4] They performed laparoscopy (ie, peritoneoscopy) on 16 children aged 1 day to 14 years, mainly for diagnostic purposes and for obtaining biopsy specimens. After that initial experience, however, there was a long lag period before pediatric surgeons in Europe and the United States picked up the torch in the early 1990s, after which point expertise in abdominal  [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21]  and thoracic operations [22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27]  started growing rapidly and began to be disseminated widely. 

Poor-quality pediatric laparoscopic instruments and telescopes that were not small enough were perhaps the most significant issues hindering the advancement of pediatric MAS.

In a comparative 5-year study, the outcomes of 211 children who underwent MAS were compared with age-matched controls with similar diagnoses who underwent open surgery. [28] No significant differences in mortality or morbidity were found. However, the hospital stay was shorter for children who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, appendectomy, nephrectomy, splenectomy, and surgery for intra-abdominal testis than for those who underwent open surgery. In addition, all parents favored the cosmetic results of MAS.

Additional procedure-specific trials yielded equivocal results for laparoscopic appendectomy [29, 30, 31, 32]  and demonstrated similar or superior results for laparoscopic urologic procedures, [33, 34] , whereas laparoscopy was found to be advantageous in the correction of inguinal hernias [35, 36, 37] and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. [38]

Subsequently, robotic-assisted laparoscopy and thoracoscopy have been adopted for use in children at numerous centers, though this transition has been constrained by the issues surrounding the adaptation of such approaches to smaller patient anatomies. [39, 40, 41]

Refinements and innovations in adult surgical practice have frequently been adapted for use in infants and children; however, many of the advances made in pediatric laparoscopy have also migrated back into adult laparoscopy. As the smaller telescopes and instruments developed for pediatric MAS became more broadly available, they were rapidly adopted by adult surgeons.

Insufflation of the abdomen or chest cavities for MAS procedures has important physiologic effects, which have been extensively studied in adults and children. [42, 43, 44, 45]

Although suspension of the abdominal wall has been suggested as an alternative to pneumoperitoneum, [46]  technical difficulties have precluded the broad adoption of this approach, [47, 48]  and insufflation of the abdomen continues to be generally regarded as a prerequisite for successful laparoscopy.

Several alternative gaseous media were investigated for use in abdominal insufflation in the late 1990s and early 2000s, [49, 50, 51]  but carbon dioxide gas remains the standard for MAS. [52, 53] Carbon dioxide is easily absorbed and eliminated through the lungs, and thus, the risk of clinically significant air embolism (gas bubbles entrapped within blood vessels) is lower than with other gases. In addition, carbon dioxide suppresses combustion, reducing the danger of fires in the operative field when electrocautery and other forms of energy devices are used.

Under normal conditions, intra-abdominal pressure varies widely, and it can increase transiently to levels as high as 200 mm Hg (eg, during forceful coughing and straining during defecation). Certain medical therapies also modestly increase intra-abdominal pressure (eg, 2-8 mm Hg for peritoneal dialysis), without adverse effects.

Insufflators deliver gas under pressure, and once the delivered gas volume exceeds the ability of the peritoneal cavity to expand, intra-abdominal pressure rises rapidly, leading to detrimental physiologic effects. This is especially true when the cavity is small, as in children. The ability of the abdominal cavity to accommodate an increase in pressure depends on the pressure applied, the compliance of the abdominal wall, and the length of time during which the pressure is maintained. 

Increased intra-abdominal pressure interferes with infradiaphragmatic venous and arterial blood flow, especially to the kidneys. This pressure change can act as a tourniquet, partially blocking the return of blood to the heart from the lower limbs and abdomen.

While the arteries remain unobstructed, increased pressure on the abdominal aorta is transmitted to the heart, and cardiac output is decreased as the left ventricle pumps against this increased pressure gradient. This typically results in an increased heart rate compensating for a smaller stroke volume and a net increase in stroke work. In children with preexisting decreased cardiac output, increased intra-abdominal pressure may lead to acute cardiac failure.

Insufflation may displace the diaphragm into the chest cavity, decreasing total lung capacity and functional residual capacity and adding to the acid-base disturbance. Insufflation pressures of 12 mm Hg increase peak airway pressure (PIP) by 40%, and decrease lung compliance by 47%, with no change in dead space. Pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary wedge pressure both increase with pneumoperitoneum, improving ventilation-perfusion at intra-abdominal pressures of less than 12 mm Hg. This may help explain the lack of effect on partial pressure of oxygen under these conditions. 

Increased minute ventilation (ie, increased rate, airway pressure, or tidal volume) can compensate for pulmonary mechanical restriction with intra-abdominal pressures of less than 12 mm Hg. The carbon dioxide is mostly absorbed across the peritoneal surface, and a rise in its partial pressure can be offset by increasing minute ventilation.

Increased intra-abdominal pressure can exacerbate gastroesophageal reflux (GER), adding to the perioperative risk of aspiration. Migration of insufflated gas out of the abdomen (as occurs when surgical dissection enters adjacent cavities, such as the chest) can cause patient discomfort or impair respiratory or cardiac function. Much work remains to be done in defining the physiologic effects of pneumoperitoneum in children. Coronary, hepatic, mesenteric, and renal flow may be affected, as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and pulmonary dynamics.

Limiting exposure to insufflation while maintaining a visible surgical field is essential to optimal safety in MAS. The ventilatory and circulatory changes can be appreciated within minutes of the onset of insufflation of gas. Pressures in excess of 15 mm Hg are associated with significant pathophysiologic effects but are reversible over a 2-hour period. In infants and children, no hemodynamic effects are observed at a pressure of 10 mm Hg for less than 15 minutes.

The pressure delivered by modern insufflators is limited, typically not exceeding 15 mm Hg in adults. Pressure limits vary in infants and children, and care must be taken to start with low flow (eg, 1 L/min) and to maintain the lowest pressure required to obtain visualization (6-8 mm Hg for infants, 8-12 mm Hg for toddlers and school-age children, and 12-15 mm Hg for adolescents and older patients).

Ventilation and insufflation strategies should be promptly altered as required to maintain normal physiology (ventilatory mechanics and hemodynamic performance). In the event of abrupt or progressive decompensation, insufflation can be halted and pneumoperitoneum evacuated. To the greatest extent practicable, all insufflated gas should be evacuated upon conclusion of MAS.

Elevation in carbon dioxide may continue for 3 hours following MAS. Continued monitoring of the cardiac, respiratory, and renal systems should be carried out in the immediate postoperative period, particularly when opioid analgesics are used, because these may amplify respiratory depression.

Advantages of MAS include the following:

Disadvantages of MAS include the following:

Complications can be related to the placement of the initial trocar or to the initial creation of pneumoperitoneum. Underlying vessels or viscera can be injured. These injuries can be minimized by the use of open technique for the first trocar placement. [54, 59]

Complications can also arise from dissection during the procedure. These include direct injuries to hollow and solid organs, as well as thermal injury. These can also be minimized by employing careful and precise technique.

Carbon dioxide can easily be absorbed through the peritoneal surface, leading to hypercapnia. Elevation in carbon dioxide can lead to acidosis, which can have further metabolic and hemodynamic consequences. Insufflation of carbon dioxide can cause cardiovascular compromise because of the previously mentioned decreased venous return. Hypothermia can also ensue because of cold carbon dioxide insufflation, especially in small infants.

Another serious, but fortunately rare, side complication is gas embolism; this is minimized by using carbon dioxide instead of other gases. This complication has also been reported during insufflation in infants when using an umbiical incision for entry. Inadvertent preperitoneal insufflation in a patient with a patent umbilical vein can lead to devastating consequences [60] and should be considered when choosing access techniques in patients younger than 1 month.

These complications can be minimized with the use of low pressure and warm humidified gas insufflation, slight hyperventilation, proper fluid resuscitation, and careful monitoring in the operating room (OR).

Operations on the esophagus are associated with significant morbidity that is directly related to the thoracotomy or laparotomy, as follows:

MAS techniques offer an alternative to these morbid procedures.

Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula has been reported by Rothenberg. [61] Fine dissection and elegant suturing of the esophageal anastomosis require significant technical skills. Robotic surgery may play a role in this procedure in the future, but at present, applications are limited by the size of the robotic instruments.

Heller myotomy with Dor anterior fundoplication via a laparoscopic approach, with or without robotic assistance, is ideal for patients with achalasia. When the diagnosis is made, some wait until recurrence occurs after a single pneumatic dilatation. An anterior myotomy is performed 4 cm above the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and extended onto the stomach for 2 cm. A Dor fundoplication is performed, suturing an anterior fundic patch to both edges of the myotomized extramucosal incision. Simultaneous upper endoscopy is performed to ensure adequate myotomy.

Heller myotomy can also be performed by using the thoracoscopic technique. (See the image below.)

Enteral access with a gastrostomy feeding tube is necessary in many children. Some are unable to swallow, and others take in inadequate calories because of neurologic impairment. Children with cystic fibrosis, malignancies, neurometabolic diseases, and cardiac malformations may also require exogenous enteral feeding.

Multiple MAS techniques have been described for gastrostomy tube placement. The advantages of a laparoscopic approach over a percutaneously placed gastrostomy include the following:

Operating time is in the range of 15-30 minutes. MAS-assisted percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement assures proper location of the tube in the stomach while avoiding injury to surrounding structures (particularly the transverse colon), and it may allow some flexibility in the site chosen for the tube.

The indications for and the technique of open fundoplication are well known to adult and pediatric surgeons. However, laparoscopic fundoplication offers excellent visualization of the hiatus, and after the initial learning curve, it can be expeditiously performed.

The morbidity of the surgical procedure (particularly with respect to respiratory complications, return of feeding, and length of hospital stay) is reduced with the laparoscopic approach.

Significant respiratory advantages of an MAS approach to this procedure are recognized, particularly in pediatric patients with developmental delay. The likelihood of extubation following the procedure, the time spent in the recovery room, the time spent in the intensive care unit (ICU), and the time spent intubated are all reduced with MAS.

The laparoscopic technique is similar to the open technique and is typically performed with five ports, including the camera port. An angled (30° or 45°) scope is used. This procedure can also be combined with a gastrostomy feeding tube if necessary.

In children, a previous gastrostomy tube can limit visibility and necessitate modification of the port placement or even revision of the gastrostomy site. In patients with contractures, care must be taken to position, pad, and secure them on the OR table in order to overcome the technical challenges. (See the video and images below.)

Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy is typically performed with three stab wounds without trocars. [1]  The average operating time is approximately 15 minutes. Most patients (>90%) are discharged home within 24 hours.

The laparoscopic approach is not universally accepted, because similar results can be achieved by means of Ramstedt pyloromyotomy via an umbilical incision. There is some evidence to suggest that the complication rate is lower with the laparoscopic approach.

The cosmetic results of laparoscopic pyloromyotomy are superior to those of the open procedure performed via the traditional right-upper-quadrant incisions. (See the videos and images below.)

Duodenal atresia is a congenital anomaly in which the first portion of the small bowel, the duodenum, is completely or partially obstructed. Many infants with this anomaly are diagnosed antenatally on the basis of a large stomach, a “double-bubble” sign on ultrasonography, and polyhydramnios (excessive amniotic fluid) from the proximal gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

With the use of three 3- to 4-mm ports, the obstruction can be bypassed with a duodenoduodenostomy connecting the duodenum proximal to the obstruction to the duodenum beyond the obstruction. Care must be taken to avoid injury to the ampulla of Vater and to make an adequate-sized anastomosis. Initial reports raised concerns about a possibly higher complication rate, [62] subsequent evidence shows no difference between open and laparoscopic approaches. [63] In addition, MAS may have advantages in terms of postoperative morbidity, length of hospital stay, and time to full feedings. [64, 65]

The first pediatric laparoscopic cholecystectomy was reported by Sigman et al in 1991. [66]  Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most common laparoscopic procedures in adult patients, it is less common in pediatric patients because of the lower incidence of gallstones in children. However, the number of pediatric laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed is increasing each year. Many of the pediatric patients who require this procedure have blood dyscrasias and form pigment stones.

Like its adult counterpart, pediatric laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed with four ports, including the camera port. The size of these ports ranges from 2 to 10 mm. There is also a single-incision option that can be performed either by means of standard laparoscopy or with robotic assistance. [67]

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been shown to be safe, even in an infant (68</ref>

Biliary dyskinesia, a condition that is less common than symptomatic biliary colic but is certainly encountered by pediatric surgeons, can be addressed with laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Like a feeding gastrostomy tube, a jejunostomy tube can be placed laparoscopically.

Small bowel can be resected if necessary, with an intra- or extra-abdominal anastomosis, by means of an MAS technique.

Laparoscopy has been used to treat intestinal malrotation, [57, 69] intussusception, [70] adhesiolysis, [57] Meckel diverticulum, [71] and small-bowel atresia, as well as enteric duplication cysts. (See the image below.)

Appendectomy is the most frequently performed abdominal procedure in children. Laparoscopic appendectomy was developed in the early 1980s by the German gynecologists Semm and Schrieber. [72, 73]  In 1991, Valla et al reported the first series of pediatric laparoscopic appendectomies. [73]

Laparoscopic appendectomy has become standard in pediatric medical centers. It offers many of the same advantages outlined above. Early studies suggested no major differences between open and laparoscopic techniques. [54, 74, 29, 32] Other trials and cohort studies comparing laparoscopic and open appendectomy demonstrated advantages with MAS , including decreased postoperative pain, improved cosmesis, and shorter times to ambulation and discharge, though some benefits were confined to children with uncomplicated apppendicitis. [30, 31]

Laparoscopic appendectomy is even more useful if the diagnosis of appendicitis is in question, especially in girls. The laparoscopic approach affords better visualization of the rest of the abdominal cavity and pelvis, allows better irrigation of the peritoneal cavity, and offers a lower wound infection rate.

Three ports (2-5 mm) are typically used, though single-port appendectomy has also been described in the literature. [75]

Laparoscopy in children with chronic abdominal pain is valuable and can often cure patients if they are experiencing chronic appendicitis. (See the video below.)

Laparoscopy has been used to treat diseases of the entire colon. [76]  It also takes advantage of the excellent collateral blood supply of the colon, which makes mobilizing large segments possible.

As mentioned above, laparoscopy offers superb visualization of the pelvic structures, making working in the deep pelvis easier and safer. Once the colon is mobilized, it can be resected with intra- or extra-abdominal anastomosis. The specimen can also be removed via the anus, and anastomosis can be performed transanally from the outside.

Classically, Hirschsprung disease has been treated by staged procedures involving biopsy, colostomy, pull-through, and colostomy takedown over a period of 6-12 months. However, with the help of MAS and extended transanal dissection, it can be performed as a single-stage procedure in most patients.

In 1994, Curran et al performed the first laparoscopic pull-through in a canine. [77]  It then was carried out in humans in 1994 by Smith et al. [78]  Laparoscopic pull-through has been shown to be feasible in infants younger than 3 months, with outcomes comparable to those of operations performed in older children. [79]  

The procedure is carried out with three or four small (3.5-5 mm) ports in the mid abdomen. Seromuscular biopsies are taken to check for mature ganglion cells and hypertrophic nerves in the proximal colon. The blood supply of the distal colon (inferior mesenteric artery [IMA]) is ligated. The colon is then mobilized down to the levator musculature in girls and the prostate in boys. (See the video below.)

The dissection is then begun transanally, and colon is removed to the level of biopsy-proven ganglionic cells. There are three different surgical approaches for Hirschsprung disease (Swenson, Soave, and Duhamel), and all of them can benefit from MAS assistance. Once the normal colon is identified and the Hirschsprung segment is resected, the anastomosis between the anus and neorectum is performed above the dentate line. [54]

A case series by Li et al reported a mean operating time of 160 minutes,  a mean time to return of bowel function of 22 hours, and a mean length of postoperative hospital stay of 8 days. [80]  A meta-analysis by Tomuschat et al reported postoperative morbidities of 9.4% for enterocolitis, 6.5% for incontinence, 11.1% for constipation, and 5.8% for reoperation. [81]

Most surgeons repair an imperforate anus with a perineal fistula primarily in the newborn period without a colostomy. For all other anorectal defects, many still defer to the three-step approach, consisting of diverting colostomy shortly after birth, the main repair at a later date, and finally, colostomy closure. [82]  Currently, there is growing interest in repairing anorectal malformations (ARMs) earlier in life. There is an increasing trend toward performing primary procedures for higher ARMs without a protective colostomy. [82]  

The laparoscopic-assisted anorectal pull-through (LAARP) is even more attractive because it allows the repair of the defect without laparotomy, without colostomy, and with minimal pain. This procedure has particular applicability to patients with imperforate anus [83] and recto–bladder neck fistula or higher. The rectum can be mobilized off of the bladder by means of a laparoscopic approach, with care taken to avoid injury to the bladder and to divide the fistula so as not to leave a remnant.

Reports of long-term results following LAARP are sparse, but the literature suggests a lower risk of perineal wound dehiscence, a nonsignificant increased risk of anal stenosis, and a possible increased risk of rectal mucosal prolapse. Functional outcomes following LAARP, particularly regarding voluntary bowel movements, incidence of soiling, and constipation, have not been shown to differ from those of open surgery, but the type and severity of malformation are significant confounding factors, and further study is required. [84]

Conventionally, hernia surgery in children is performed via high ligation of the hernia sac. This requires incision over the inguinal canal and dissection through the abdominal wall, opening of the inguinal canal, dissection of the cord from the hernia sac, high ligation of the hernia sac, and closure in layers.

The contralateral side is commonly evaluated laparoscopically during an open inguinal hernia repair by inserting the port through the hernia sac, inflating the abdominal cavity, and inspecting the contralateral side with a 70º laparoscope. There is some debate about whether a patent processus vaginalis will become a clinical hernia and warrants repair. This finding is present in as many as 38% of patients presenting for unilateral hernia repair, [85] though the overall incidence of contralateral hernia following unilateral repair is 6%. [86]

Criteria that have been proposed as indications to proceed with contralateral repair include inflation of the contralateral hemiscrotum, inability to see the end of the patent processus, and the presence of bubbles with compression over the inguinal canal. Opponents of repairing the contralateral side quote the risk to cord structures and the inability to predict the development of a hernia. 

Laparoscopic repair has also been reported via a transabdominal approach. A port is placed at the umbilicus, and the peritoneal cavity is insufflated with carbon dioxide. Various techniques have been described, most of which involve using a needle or other instrument to loop around the peritoneum at the level of the internal ring. This performs a high ligation of the sac without a groin incision or dissection through the abdominal wall.

The ligation should be performed with nonabsorbable suture—preferably a braided suture, given that monofilament suture repair is suture-dependent [87] and is associated with palpable knots. Sparing fulguration of the peritoneum with electrocautery has been described as inducing inflammation and promoting closure of the ring. [88]

The advantages of this technique include visualization of both sides and clear identification of indirect as well as direct inguinal hernias. In females, there is very little risk to this approach; in males, care must be taken to not entrap the cord structures in the repair. This type of repair does not address a concurrent distal (encysted) hydrocele.

MAS also has a theoretical advantage with respect to gonadal injury. In girls, the ovaries can be clearly visualized and incarceration identified. In boys, minimal or no dissection of the cord structures (including the vas deferens and gonadal vessels) occurs; therefore, the likelihood of injury to the testis is theoretically lower than with an open approach.

As with adult laparoscopic hernia repair, this approach has a practical advantage when repair of a recurrent hernia is undertaken. Because the surgical planes of the open approach are not violated, open repair of a recurrence should be less difficult. By contrast, reoperation following open repair requires dissection through scar tissue with the accompanying risk of injury to the cord structures. 

In a study of the published literature in English between 2009 and 2015, the International Pediatric Endosurgery Group reported that MAS approaches resulted in lower postoperative complication rates and shorter operating times in the treatment of inguinal hernias in children. [89]

This procedure is usually performed with one to three trocars. [90] In one study, the median operating time was approximately 30 minutes, and the median hospital stay was 24 hours. Recurrence with the laparoscopic Palomo technique was low, and the rate of postoperative hydrocele formation was significant (6.6%). [91]

MAS is indicated if the cryptorchid testis is not palpable in the inguinal canal after induction of anesthesia. The first report of abdominal testes identified by means of laparoscopy was in 1976, [92]  and since then, laparoscopy has become the criterion standard for nonpalpable testes. Laparoscopy allows localization of intra-abdominal testes, detection of an absent testis, and identification of a canalicular testis. This localization is easily accomplished by following the course of the vas and testicular vessels.

Once located, intra-abdominal testes can be treated by means of MAS-assisted orchidopexy. The nonpalpable testes are usually found between the internal ring and the external iliac vessels. [92]

Laparoscopy has been successfully used in a wide variety of gynecologic settings, including tubal torsion, adnexal torsion, and oophorectomy. [93]  It is worth noting that the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (NASPAG) currently recommends ovarian-sparing surgery for cases of simple cysts, torsion (even if the ovary does not appear viable), or benign tumors. Specific recommendations would be determined by the findings at operation.

In teenaged girls with abdominal pain, diagnostic laparoscopy is invaluable. It can be performed easily via two or three ports and provides an excellent operative view. Patients do extremely well and are able to return to their preoperative activity relatively quickly.

In 1990, the MAS approach to splenectomy was first successfully performed in animals. [94]  Since then, many accounts of laparoscopic splenectomy in humans have been reported. This procedure has now become the criterion standard for removal of the spleen. Indications  for laparoscopic splenectomy as they are for the corresponding open procedure, unless malignancy is suspected.

Patients are usually placed in a supine position or in a 45° right lateral decubitus position. Typically, three to five ports of varying sizes (5-15 mm) are used. The larger port allows a large endoscopic bag to be used. Placement of this at the umbilicus yields an excellent cosmetic result. Compared with the open approach, the laparoscopic approach offers a much better view, without an extensive incision. Most of the dissection has been facilitated by the development of better energy modalities and improved stapling devices.

The spleen is placed in a bag, which is exteriorized and removed after the specimen is broken up with a finger or sponge foreceps. Patients do extremely well postoperatively, and most are able to return home within 48 hours.

The MAS approach has been safely adapted to a variety of splenic procedures (including total and complete splenectomy, cystectomy and splenopexy for wandering spleen), with low complication rates for well-selected patients. [95, 96, 97]  (See the video below.)

Laparoscopic nephrectomy was first described in 1991 in adults, [98]  and both transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches have been used. (See the video below.)

Ehrlich et al reported the first series of laparoscopic renal surgery in children. [99]  He performed a total of 17 procedures, consisting of 10 nephrectomies, four nephroureterectomies, two partial nephrectomies, and one giant renal cyst excision. A transperitoneal approach was used in 17 children (age range, 4 months to 11 years), with good results. Ehrlich et al also reported the first laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in 1993.

Till et al performed a systematic literature-based search from 2011 to 2016 and concluded that conventional laparoscopy was still the preferred method and that MAS required further study. [100]

The retroperitoneal approach completely avoids the peritoneum, thereby decreasing the related complications. The incidence of postoperative ileus and postoperative adhesions are also avoided. It is also ideal in patients who have had previous abdominal surgeries.

In 1992, Gaur performed the first successful retroperitoneal approach for renal surgery in India. [101]  This approach can be used for renal biopsy, nephrectomy, heminephrectomy, nephroureterectomies, nephropexy, adrenalectomy, and pyeloplasty. [102]  The retroperitoneum is dissected by using a balloon, saline, a finger, or direct vision. Angled scopes provide a much better view because of the limited operational space. This approach is limited in small children.

Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (see the video below) has improved the operation for the donor and has increased the use of living related renal transplantation.

Other urologic procedures have also been performed laparoscopically, including pyeloplasty, bladder reconstruction, and ureteral reimplantation. See the images below. [103, 104]

The MAS approach can be applied to adrenal tumors, such as pheochromocytoma, and incidentally found adrenal masses. The MAS approach can be transperitoneal or retroperitoneal. MAS offers an excellent view of the surgical anatomy and the vasculature. The approach is similar to that followed in laparoscopic nephrectomy.

In 1910, Jacobeus first introduced thoracoscopy for dissection of tuberculosis (TB) adhesions. [55]  Thoracoscopy is safe and effective, even in infants weighing less than 1.5 kg, without significant morbidity or mortality. [55, 56]

Patients are placed in a lateral position with the operative side up, as in the open technique. Three trocars are used in most cases.

Thoracoscopy is useful for the following [105] :

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Marc A Levitt, MD Surgical Director, Center for Colorectal and Pelvic Reconstruction, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Nationwide Children’s Hospital

Marc A Levitt, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Surgeons, Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Karen A Diefenbach, MD, MPH Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University College of Medicine; Attending Surgeon, Nationwide Children’s Hospital and The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center

Karen A Diefenbach, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Surgeons, American Pediatric Surgical Association, International Pediatric Endosurgery Group, Pediatric Trauma Society, Society for Simulation in Healthcare

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Dominic Papandria, MD Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University College of Medicine; Fellow in Pediatric Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Nationwide Children’s Hospital

Dominic Papandria, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Surgeons, American Pediatric Surgical Association, Association for Academic Surgery, International Pediatric Endosurgery Group

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Gail E Besner, MD Chief, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Principal Investigator, Center for Perinatal Research, Director, Pediatric Surgery Training Program, Associate Burn Director, Nationwide Children’s Hospital; H William Clatworthy, Jr, Professor of Surgery, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University College of Medicine

Gail E Besner, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Surgical Association, Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Burn Association, American College of Surgeons, American Gastroenterological Association, American Medical Association, American Medical Womens Association, American Pediatric Surgical Association, Association for Academic Surgery, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Society of Surgical Oncology, Society of University Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Philip Glick, MD, MBA Professor, Departments of Surgery, Pediatrics, and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vice-Chairperson for Finance and Development, Department of Surgery, State University of New York at Buffalo

Philip Glick, MD, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Surgeons, American Medical Association, American Pediatric Surgical Association, American Thoracic Society, Association for Academic Surgery, Association for Surgical Education, Central Surgical Association, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Medical Society of the State of New York, Phi Beta Kappa, Physicians for Social Responsibility, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Sigma Xi, Society for Pediatric Research, Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Society of University Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Denis D Bensard, MD, FACS, FAAP Director of Pediatric Surgery and Trauma, Attending Surgeon in Adult and Pediatric Acute Care Surgery, Attending Surgeon in Adult and Pediatric Surgical Critical Care, Denver Health Medical Center; Professor of Surgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine; Associate Program Director, General Surgery Residency, Attending Surgeon, Children’s Hospital Colorado

Denis D Bensard, MD, FACS, FAAP is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, Alpha Omega Alpha, Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons, Southwestern Surgical Congress, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Surgeons, American Pediatric Surgical Association, Association for Academic Surgery, Society of University Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Kirpal Singh, MD 

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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