Secondary Polycythemia

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In secondary polycythemia, the number of red blood cells (RBCs) is increased as a result of an underlying condition. Secondary polycythemia would more accurately be called secondary erythrocytosis or erythrocythemia, as those terms specifically denote increased red blood cells. The term polycythemia is used appropriately in the myeloproliferative disorder called polycythemia vera, in which there are elevated levels of all three peripheral blood cell lines—RBCs, white blood cells, and platelets. [1, 2]

Secondary polycythemia most often develops as a response to chronic hypoxemia, which triggers increased production of erythropoietin by the kidneys.25 The most common causes of secondary polycythemia include obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). [3] Other causes testosterone replacement therapy [4] and heavy cigarette smoking. Erythropoietin-secreting tumors (eg, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, adrenal adenoma) cause some cases.

Secondary polycythemia must be differentiated from primary polycythemia and relative polycythemia (in which RBC numbers are normal but plasma volume is contracted. The reduction in plasma volume may be due to dehydration or to reduced venous compliance; the latter is also termed stress polycythemia or Gaisböck syndrome, and is typically seen in obese middle-aged men who are receiving a diuretic for treatment of hypertension. See Presentation and Workup.

To the extent that the increased RBCs alleviate tissue hypoxia, secondary polycythemia may in fact be beneficial. However, treatment with phlebotomy is indicated for patients with hematocrits higher than 60%-65%, who may experience symptoms such as  impaired alertness, dizziness, headaches, and compromised exercise tolerance, and who may face increased risk for thrombosis, strokes, myocardial infarction, and deep venous thrombosis. Otherwise, secondary polycythemia is addressed by treating the underlying condition. See Treatment.

 

Increased hemoglobin and hematocrit values reflect the ratio of red blood cell mass to plasma volume. Any change in either the hemoglobin or the hematocrit can alter test results.

Relative polycythemia, or erythrocythemia, results from decreased plasma volume. A true polycythemia or erythrocythemia results from increased red blood cell mass. Therefore, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels cannot accurately help make this distinction. Direct measurement of red blood cell mass is necessary to differentiate these conditions.

In primary polycythemia, the disorder results from a mutation expressed within the hematopoietic stem cell or progenitor cells, which drives the eventual accumulation of red blood cells. The secondary polycythemic disorders may be acquired or congenital; however, they are driven by circulating factors that are independent of the function of hematopoietic stem cells.

The frequency of secondary polycythemia depends on the underlying disease. The mortality and morbidity of secondary polycythemia depend on the underlying condition.

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Srikanth Nagalla, MBBS, MS, FACP Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center

Srikanth Nagalla, MBBS, MS, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: American Society of Hematology, Association of Specialty Professors

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Emmanuel C Besa, MD Professor Emeritus, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University

Emmanuel C Besa, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for Cancer Education, American Society of Clinical Oncology, American College of Clinical Pharmacology, American Federation for Medical Research, American Society of Hematology, New York Academy of Sciences

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Ronald A Sacher, MBBCh, FRCPC, DTM&H Professor of Internal Medicine and Pathology, Director, Hoxworth Blood Center, University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center

Ronald A Sacher, MBBCh, FRCPC, DTM&H is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association of Blood Banks, American Clinical and Climatological Association, American Society for Clinical Pathology, American Society of Hematology, College of American Pathologists, International Society of Blood Transfusion, International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Koyamangalath Krishnan, MD, FRCP, FACP Dishner Endowed Chair of Excellence in Medicine, Professor of Medicine, James H Quillen College of Medicine at East Tennessee State University

Koyamangalath Krishnan, MD, FRCP, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Society of Hematology, Royal College of Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Karen Seiter, MD Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Oncology/Hematology, New York Medical College

Karen Seiter, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for Cancer Research, American College of Physicians, American Society of Hematology

Disclosure: Received honoraria from Novartis for speaking and teaching; Received consulting fee from Novartis for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Celgene for speaking and teaching.

Secondary Polycythemia

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