Pseudohypoglycemia

No Results

No Results

processing….

Pseudohypoglycemia is an event when a person experiences typical symptoms of hypoglycemia but with a measured plasma glucose concentration above 70 mg/dL (>3.9 mmol/L). [1, 2] The term was used in the past to describe disparity in actual and measured plasma/ capillary glucose.

The term clinical pseudohypoglycemia is used when patients with personality and psychological disorders report relief of symptoms (eg, mental dullness, disorientation, confusion, palpitations) after eating. Plasma glucose levels are within reference ranges in all such patients while they are symptomatic. [3, 4]

It is important for clinicians to recognize the difference between true and pseudohypoglycemia to prevent unnecessary investigations or treatment for the same.

Pseudohypoglycemia or artifactual hypoglycemia can occur in the following situations:

Decreased capillary flow resulting in decreased glucose transport through the tissues and increased tissue extraction of glucose. [5] It can occur in:

Raynaud phenomena [6, 7]

Acrocyanosis [8]

Peripheral vascular disease

Eisenmenger syndrome [9]

Circulatory shock

Increased glycolysis by the leucocytes and red blood cells when there is a delay in interpreting the blood sample or separating plasma from the blood sample. Even in patients with normal leucocyte counts an artificial decrease in glucose level (0.17 mmol/L/h) is seen when it is allowed to clot at room temperature. [10] Serum glucose concentration starts falling precipitously within 2 hours of collection if not refrigerated. [11] A 90% lowering of glucose levels occurred when the blood was kept at room temperature for 2 hours. That can happen with:

Leukemia [12, 13, 14]

Leukemoid reactions including eosinophilic leukemoid reaction due to underlying poorly differentiated carcinoma and hematopoietic cytokines-stimulated leukocytosis. [10]

Polycythemia vera [15, 11]

The same findings have also been observed in blood samples containing high levels of other cell types due to the above mechanism as in chronic hemolytic anemia. [16, 17] Primary red cell disorders associated with decreased survival and reticulocytosis can also alter glycohemoglobin measurements making them appear low. [17]

African trypanosomiasis causes in vitro use of glucose. [18]

Hyperviscosity syndromes can cause artifactual hypoglycemia as well, as observed in:

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia [19, 20]

Monoclonal gammaglobulinemia of undetermined significance (MGUS) [21]

This is no longer observed after the plasmapheresis or appropriate dilution of the sample to a serum viscosity of 1.4-1.8, as measured with a capillary Ostwald viscometer. [19, 21, 20]

Hypertriglyceridemia [22]

Effect of various drugs on interpretation of glucose by different glucose meters. [23] Although there is a dose response relationship with the drug level and glucose interpretation, this is confounded by various factors especially in critically ill patients due to associated liver or kidney dysfunction which may raise the level of the drugs even when given at a therapeutic dose. It becomes clinically important to monitor these patients closely. Drugs causing that problem include:

Ascorbic acid (especially high doses used in cancer therapy) [24]

Dopamine

Acetaminophen

Mannitol

In hospital settings, various other factors should be taken into consideration which may affect the glucose meter readings.      

                   Severe acidosis (pH <6.95) can falsely decrease glucose readings [22]

                   Patients receiving high flow oxygen can have false low readings with glucose meter using glucose oxidase method [22]

                   High hematocrit as in neonates can also cause false low blood glucose readings. [25]

 

Venous plasma glucose concentration greater than 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) after an overnight fast are within reference ranges. As per ADA guidelines, hypoglycemia is considered if plasma glucose is less than 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L). [26] However, in some groups of patients, like young females, values of 50-70 mg/dL (2.8-3.9 mmol/L) may be normal. [27]

Plasma insulin levels and levels of compensatory counterregulatory hormones, such as glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, and catecholamines, are within reference ranges when pseudohypoglycemia is found.

Evaluating concurrent blood count as well as other parameters like protein is important to evaluate the cause for falsely low glucose levels.

Since the discovery of insulin in 1924, hypoglycemic symptoms have been reported in nondiabetic patients. It was thought to result from dysinsulinism. [28] In 1975, Yager and Young described a syndrome of nonhypoglycemia in which patients presented with varied spectrum of symptoms that they attributed to low glucose. [29]

In 1961, Field et al used the term artifactual hypoglycemia to describe the falsely low glucose that occurred in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. [30]

The terms pseudohypoglycemia and artifactual hypoglycemia have been used since then to describe the symptomatology.

The patients may be asymptomatic and they may be subjected to unnecessary testing based on the abnormal laboratory result. Occasionally, patients may present with nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, headache, visual disturbances, and lightheadedness.

Clinical correlation becomes of utmost importance in such circumstances. Some patients may present with typical symptoms of neuroglycopenia like slurred speech, confusion, and, rarely, seizures and coma, in which case further workup is required.

The clinical diagnosis of hypoglycemia is established when symptoms are consistent with hypoglycemia, a low plasma glucose concentration is confirmed, and symptoms subside in the presence of normal plasma glucose levels (Whipple’s triad).

Absence of symptoms with low glucose values should raise the suspicion of artifactual hypoglycemia. The following actions are recommended in an effort to prevent it:

Seeing patient as a whole and keeping in mind other comorbid conditions that might interfere with the reading as described above

Evaluation of potential drugs that might interfere with the testing

Confirmation of glucose measurement in capillary blood or in venous blood collected in tubes with antiglycolytic agents like sodium fluoride

Prompt serum separation and refrigeration of blood sample

Seaquist ER, Anderson J, Childs B,et al. Hypoglycemia and Diabetes: A report of a workgroup of the American Diabetes Association and the Endocrine Society. Diabetes care. May 2013. 36(5):1384-1395. [Medline].

Seaquist ER, Anderson J, Childs B, Cryer P, Dagogo-Jack S, Fish L, et al. Hypoglycemia and diabetes: a report of a workgroup of the American Diabetes Association and the Endocrine Society. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 May. 98(5):1845-59. [Medline].

Elks ML. Pseudohypoglycemia in adult victims of adolescent incest. South Med J. 1990 Nov. 83(11):1338-40. [Medline].

Petrella V, Silvera F, Massara G. [Syndrome of clinical pseudohypoglycemia]. Minerva Med. 1984 Nov 30. 75(45-46):2751-4. [Medline].

El Khoury M, Yousuf F, Martin V, et al. Pseudohypoglycemia: a cause for unreliable finger-stick glucose measurements. Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr. 14(3):337-9. [Medline].

McGuire EA, Helderman JH, Tobin JD, Andres R, Berman M. Effects of arterial versus venous sampling on analysis of glucose kinetics in man. J Appl Physiol. 1976 Oct. 41(4):565-73. [Medline].

Tarasova VD, Zana M, Rendell M. Artifactual hypoglycemia: an old term for a new classification. Diabetes care. 2014. 37:e85-e86.

Crevel E, Ardigo S, Perrenoud L et al. Acrocyanosis as a cause of pseudo hypoglycemia. J Am Geriatric Soc. August 2009. 57(8):1517-20. [Medline].

Theofilogiannakos EK, Giannakoulas G, Ziakas A, Karvounis HI, Styliadis IH. Pseudohypoglycemia in a patient with the Eisenmenger syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Mar 16. 152(6):407-8. [Medline].

Astles JR, Petros WP, Peters WP, Sedor FA. Artifactual hypoglycemia associated with hematopoietic cytokines. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1995 Aug. 119(8):713-6. [Medline].

Ybarra J, Isern J. Leukocytosis-induced artifactual hypoglycemia. Endocr J. 2003 Aug. 50(4):481-2. [Medline].

Assaad SN, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Samaan NA. Pseudohypoglycemia in chronic leukemia. Tex Med. 1988 Jul. 84(7):36-7. [Medline].

Canivet B, Elbaze P, Dujardin P. Pseudohypoglycemia in a patient with leukemia [letter]. Biomedicine. 1981 Dec. 35(7-8):203-4. [Medline].

Rawnsley HM, Bowman HM. Autoglycolysis in leukemic and non-leukemic blood. Am J Med Sci. 1965 Feb. 249:203-10. [Medline].

Arem R, Jeang MK, Blevens TC, Waddell CC, Field JB. Polycythemia rubra vera and artifactual hypoglycemia. Arch Intern Med. 1982 Nov. 142(12):2199-201. [Medline].

Farfel Z, Freimark D, Mayan H, Gafni J. Spurious hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia and hypoxemia in chronic hemolytic anemia. Isr J Med Sci. 1990 Nov. 26(11):606-10. [Medline].

Jokinen CH, Swaim WR, Nuttall FQ. A case of hereditary xerocytosis diagnosed as a result of suspected hypoglycemia and observed low glycohemoglobin. J Lab Clin Med. 2004 Jul. 144(1):27-30. [Medline].

Nieman RE, Kelly JJ, Waskin HA. Severe African trypanosomiasis with spurious hypoglycemia. J Infect Dis. 1989 Feb. 159(2):360-2. [Medline].

Haibach H, Wright DL, Bailey LE. Pseudohypoglycemia in a patient with Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia, an artifact of hyperviscosity [letter]. Clin Chem. 1986 Jun. 32(6):1239-40. [Medline].

Gertz MA. Waldenström macroglobulinemia: 2012 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and management. Am J Hematol. 2012 May. 87(5):503-10. [Medline].

Wenk RE, Yoho S, Bengzon A. Pseudohypoglycemia with monoclonal immunoglobulin m. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005 Apr. 129(4):454-5. [Medline].

Tonyushkina K, Nichols JH. Glucose meters: a review of technical challenges to obtaining accurate results. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009 Jul 1. 3 (4):971-80. [Medline].

Tang Z, Du X, Louie RF, Kost GJ. Effects of drugs on glucose measurements with handheld glucose meters and a portable glucose analyzer. Am J Clin Pathol. 2000 Jan. 113(1):75-86. [Medline].

Kimura T, Kozawa J, Matsui M, Nishizawa H, Yasuda T, Otsuki M. Pseudohypoglycemia or hyperglycemia caused by interference with self-monitoring blood glucose measurements in anticancer ascorbic acid therapy. J Diabetes Investig. 2013 Nov 27. 4(6):679-80. [Medline].

Balion C, Grey V, Ismaila A, Blatz S, Seidlitz W. Screening for hypoglycemia at the bedside in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with the Abbott PCx glucose meter. BMC Pediatr. 2006 Nov 3. 6:28. [Medline].

Defining and reporting hypoglycemia in diabetes: a report from the American Diabetes Association Workgroup on Hypoglycemia. Diabetes Care. 2005 May. 28(5):1245-9. [Medline].

Gregory JW, Aynsley-Green A. The definition of hypoglycaemia. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Jul. 7(3):587-90. [Medline].

Harris S. Hyperinsulinism and dysinsulinism. JAMA. 1924. 83:729-733.

Yager J, Young RT. Non-hypoglycemia is an epidemic condition. N Engl J Med. 1974 Oct 24. 291(17):907-8. [Medline].

Fields JB, Williams HE. Artifactual hypoglycemia associated with leukemia. N Engl J Med. 1961. 265:946-948.

Catherine Anastasopoulou, MD, PhD, FACE Associate Professor of Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University; Attending Endocrinologist, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein Medical Center

Catherine Anastasopoulou, MD, PhD, FACE is a member of the following medical societies: American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Endocrine Society, Philadelphia Endocrine Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Janna Prater, MD Fellow in Endocrinology, Albert Einstein Medical Center

Janna Prater, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Diabetes Association, American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, American Thyroid Association, Endocrine Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Goral Panchal, MD Fellow in Endocrinology, Albert Einstein Medical Center

Goral Panchal, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, Tennessee Medical Association, American College of Endocrinology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

George T Griffing, MD Professor Emeritus of Medicine, St Louis University School of Medicine

George T Griffing, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, International Society for Clinical Densitometry, Southern Society for Clinical Investigation, American College of Medical Practice Executives, American Association for Physician Leadership, American College of Physicians, American Diabetes Association, American Federation for Medical Research, American Heart Association, Central Society for Clinical and Translational Research, Endocrine Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Pseudohypoglycemia

Research & References of Pseudohypoglycemia|A&C Accounting And Tax Services
Source

96 thoughts on “Pseudohypoglycemia”


Leave a Reply