Pediatric Malignant Pericardial Effusion

No Results

No Results


Pericardial involvement in patients with malignancy is common. [1, 2] Widespread use of noninvasive diagnostic techniques, such as echocardiography and computed tomography (CT) scanning, has increased awareness of this diagnosis. The mere presence of pericardial effusion does not necessarily imply pericardial infiltration by malignant cells.

Pericardial malignancy is often asymptomatic. It is observed on chest radiography performed to evaluate the lungs or diagnosed as an incidental finding at autopsy. It can also present in antenatal scans, especially with fetal teratoma. Although pericardial malignancy may be reported as an incidental finding, it may have contributed to the symptoms and even to death.

Medical care is dictated mainly by the general condition of the patient and the underlying malignancy. The safety and effectiveness of surgical drainage of pericardial fluid via pericardiectomy (complete or partial) or the creation of a pericardial window are well recognized. Further inpatient care is determined by the underlying condition. Further outpatient care is often required to look for evidence of constrictive pericarditis. 

The pericardium consists of 2 layers, the visceral pericardium (epicardium) and the parietal pericardium, which enclose a potential space (ie, the pericardial cavity) between them. This cavity is normally lubricated by a very small amount of serous fluid (<30 mL in adults). Inflammation of the pericardium or obstruction of lymphatic drainage from the pericardium of any etiology causes an increase in fluid volume, referred to as a pericardial effusion.

Malignant involvement of the pericardium may be primary (less common) or secondary (spreading from a nearby or distant focus of malignancy). Secondary neoplasms can involve the pericardium by contiguous extension from a mediastinal mass, nodular tumor deposits from hematogenous or lymphatic spread, and diffuse pericardial thickening from tumor infiltration (with or without effusion). In diffuse pericardial thickening, the heart may be encased by an effusive-constrictive pericarditis.

Other rare mechanisms include chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and intrapericardial extramedullary hematopoiesis with preleukemic conditions or during blast crisis in chronic myeloid leukemia. Obstruction of lymphatic drainage by mediastinal tumors, either benign or malignant, can also give rise to pericardial effusion, which can be chylous. These mechanisms may act independently or jointly in any particular child with malignancy. The underlying myocardium is not involved in most patients.

In healthy individuals, the pericardium does not limit filling of the cardiac chambers either at rest or during exercise. When pericardial effusion occurs, chamber capacity may be reduced. Venous return may be severely limited, and thus, cardiac output may also be severely limited. The capacity of the pericardial space is influenced by its natural stiffness. Rapid accumulation of fluid is poorly tolerated, whereas slow accumulation may allow large amounts of pericardial fluid to collect without producing symptoms.

When pressure is increased within the pericardial space, filling pressure is elevated in all chambers of the heart. In advanced stages, right and left atrial mean pressures and right and left ventricular end-diastolic pressures are virtually identical to the intrapericardial pressure. Therefore, the clinical features result from the limitation of cardiac output and elevated venous pressures.

In healthy individuals, inspiration causes the systolic blood pressure to fall slightly as a result of the greater volume of blood accommodated by the pulmonary vascular bed. This occurs despite inspiratory increase in venous return to the right heart. In cardiac tamponade, right ventricular filling is maintained at the expense of restricted left ventricular filling, and the systolic blood pressure falls further (>10 mm Hg).

This exaggerated fall in systolic blood pressure with inspiration is referred to as pulsus paradoxus. It is an important sign of cardiac tamponade, though on occasion, severe respiratory distress of any cause (asthma, emphysema, pleural effusion) may give rise to this sign.

Primary malignant neoplasms that may give rise to pericardial effusion include the following:

Pericardial mesothelioma





Malignant pericardial teratoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma with tuberous sclerosis


Kaposi sarcoma and primary cardiac lymphoma in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) [3]

Intrapericardial teratoma in the fetus and neonate

Metastatic or infiltrative diseases that may give rise to pericardial effusion include the following:

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma





Wilms tumor

Hodgkin lymphoma

Primary mediastinal (thymic) B-cell lymphoma



Pulmonary lymphangiomatosis

Malignant fibrous histiocytomas



High-grade sarcomas

Burkitt lymphoma

Pericardial effusion is a common cause of pericarditis, occurring in approximately 5-15% of US patients with malignant neoplasms, according to autopsy data. Most cardiac tumors in infants and children are benign (eg, rhabdomyoma and fibroma) and are unlikely to be associated with pericardial involvement. [4] A study of 236 children in Poland reported cardiac involvement in 15% of children, including pericardial effusion in 7% of children. [5] A review from the United States ranked pericardial effusion as an important oncologic emergency. [6]

Children of all ages are affected, but pericardial effusion is more common in older children and adolescents. Medary et al reported a mean age of 14 years. [7] This finding may be related to the longer survival of older children with malignancy. Both sexes are affected. Medary et al reported a higher incidence in males than in females, with a ratio of 7:3. [7]

Children with pericardial involvement due to malignancy have more extensive disease and hence a worse prognosis; pericardial tamponade may add to the mortality unless promptly detected and appropriately treated. [5, 8] Educate patients about cardiac symptoms of tamponade and the need to follow up with regular examination.

Detection of malignant cells in pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial fluids of patients with cancer marks the presence of metastatic disease, usually establishing a grave prognosis; however, all patients with malignancy and pericardial effusion do not have metastatic involvement.

Immediate relief of large effusions is essential to prolong survival.

Sadullahoglu C, Nart D, Veral A. The importance of EZH2 and MOC-31 expression in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant effusions. Diagn Cytopathol. 2017 Feb. 45(2):118-24. [Medline].

Dragoescu EA, Liu L. Pericardial fluid cytology: an analysis of 128 specimens over a 6-year period. Cancer Cytopathol. 2013 May. 121(5):242-51. [Medline].

Castillo JJ, Shum H, Lahijani M, Winer ES, Butera JN. Prognosis in primary effusion lymphoma is associated with the number of body cavities involved. Leuk Lymphoma. 2012 Dec. 53(12):2378-82. [Medline].

Thomas-de-Montpreville V, Nottin R, Dulmet E, Serraf A. Heart tumors in children and adults: clinicopathological study of 59 patients from a surgical center. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2007 Jan-Feb. 16(1):22-8. [Medline].

Bien E, Stefanowicz J, Aleszewicz-Baranowska J, et al. [Cardio-vascular disorders at the time of diagnosis of malignant solid tumours in children–own experiences]. Med Wieku Rozwoj. 2005 Jul-Sep. 9(3 Pt 2):551-9. [Medline].

McCurdy MT, Shanholtz CB. Oncologic emergencies. Crit Care Med. 2012 Jul. 40(7):2212-22. [Medline].

Medary I, Steinherz LJ, Aronson DC, La Quaglia MP. Cardiac tamponade in the pediatric oncology population: treatment by percutaneous catheter drainage. J Pediatr Surg. 1996 Jan. 31(1):197-9; discussion 199-200. [Medline].

Ben-Horin S, Bank I, Guetta V, Livneh A. Large symptomatic pericardial effusion as the presentation of unrecognized cancer: a study in 173 consecutive patients undergoing pericardiocentesis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2006 Jan. 85(1):49-53. [Medline].

Devlieger R, Hindryckx A, Van Mieghem T, et al. Therapy for foetal pericardial tumours: survival following in utero shunting, and literature review. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2009. 25(4):407-12. [Medline].

Walsh MA, Carcao M, Pope E, Lee KJ. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma presenting antenatally with a pericardial effusion. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2008 Oct. 30(10):761-3. [Medline].

Tsai MH, Yang CP, Chung HT, Shih LY. Acute myeloid leukemia in a young girl presenting with mediastinal granulocytic sarcoma invading pericardium and causing superior vena cava syndrome. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009 Dec. 31(12):980-2. [Medline].

Singh J, Rana SS, Kaur A, Srivastava V, Singh H, Sharma R. Intrapericardial teratoma presenting as recurrent pericardial tamponade: report of a case. Surg Today. 2009. 39(8):700-4. [Medline].

Karatolios K, Pankuweit S, Moosdorf RG, Maisch B. Vascular endothelial growth factor in malignant and benign pericardial effusion. Clin Cardiol. 2012 Jun. 35(6):377-81. [Medline].

Fowler NO. Cardiac tamponade. A clinical or an echocardiographic diagnosis?. Circulation. 1993 May. 87(5):1738-41. [Medline].

Leeman DE, Levine MJ, Come PC. Doppler echocardiography in cardiac tamponade: exaggerated respiratory variation in transvalvular blood flow velocity integrals. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988 Mar. 11(3):572-8. [Medline].

Luna A, Ribes R, Caro P, et al. Evaluation of cardiac tumors with magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Radiol. 2005 Jul. 15(7):1446-55. [Medline].

Rooper LM, Ali SZ, Olson MT. A minimum volume of more than 60 mL is necessary for adequate cytologic diagnosis of malignant pericardial effusions. Am J Clin Pathol. 2016 Jan. 145(1):101-6. [Medline].

Bagri NK, Yadav DK, Agarwal S, Aier T, Gupta V. Pericardial effusion in children: experience from tertiary care center in northern India. Indian Pediatr. 2014 Mar. 51(3):211-3. [Medline].

Palma JH, Gaia DF, Guilhen JC, Branco JN, Buffolo E. Video-thoracoscopic pericardial drainage in the treatment of pericardial effusions. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2009 Mar. 24(1):44-9. [Medline].

Georghiou GP, Stamler A, Sharoni E, et al. Video-assisted thoracoscopic pericardial window for diagnosis and management of pericardial effusions. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005 Aug. 80(2):607-10. [Medline].

Puri A, Agarwal N, Dwivedi SK, Narain VS. Percutaneous balloon pericardiotomy for the treatment of recurrent malignant pericardial effusion. Indian Heart J. 2012 Jan-Feb. 64(1):88-9. [Medline].

Jones DA, Jain AK. Percutaneous balloon pericardiotomy for recurrent malignant pericardial effusion. J Thorac Oncol. 2011 Dec. 6(12):2138-9. [Medline].

Nieh S, Chen SF, Fu E, et al. Detection of the human telomerase RNA component by in situ hybridization in cells from body fluids. Acta Cytol. 2005 Jan-Feb. 49(1):31-7. [Medline].

Politi E, Kandaraki C, Apostolopoulou C, et al. Immunocytochemical panel for distinguishing between carcinoma and reactive mesothelial cells in body cavity fluids. Diagn Cytopathol. 2005 Mar. 32(3):151-5. [Medline].

Poothirikovil Venugopalan, MBBS, MD, FRCPCH Consultant Pediatrician with Cardiology Expertise, Department of Child Health, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals, NHS Trust; Honorary Senior Clinical Lecturer, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, UK

Poothirikovil Venugopalan, MBBS, MD, FRCPCH is a member of the following medical societies: British Congenital Cardiac Association, Paediatrician with Cardiology Expertise Special Interest Group, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Syamasundar Rao Patnana, MD¬†Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emeritus Chief of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston and Children’s Memorial Hermann Hospital

Syamasundar Rao Patnana, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Pediatric Society, American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Hugh D Allen, MD Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology and Department of Internal Medicine, Ohio State University College of Medicine

Hugh D Allen, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, American Pediatric Society, American Society of Echocardiography, Society for Pediatric Research, Society of Pediatric Echocardiography, and Western Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Ira H Gessner, MD Professor Emeritus, Pediatric Cardiology

Ira H Gessner, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, American Pediatric Society, and Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Pediatric Malignant Pericardial Effusion

Research & References of Pediatric Malignant Pericardial Effusion|A&C Accounting And Tax Services